Our Research

New directions for research

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CIBUL's research strategy is based on teamwork and co-authorship, reflecting the multidisciplinary nature of the field of international business. Members of the centre have published their research in leading academic journals including the Journal of International Business Studies, Research Policy, Management International Review, Organization Studies, Journal of Business Research and Journal of World Business.

Research development at CIBUL is divided into four main thematic areas, focused especially on the regions of China, India and SE Asia. 

Theme 1: The global determinants and impact of foreign direct investment

This theme examines the interface between regional economic integration, economic performance, competitiveness and development; regional economic integration as a national strategy to attract FDI; national and regional level spillovers from inward FDI; inter-industry spillover effects from inward FDI; spillover effects from outward FDI; globalisation and effects on the local economy of Yorkshire. 

Theme 2: The strategy of MNEs and countries - impact on home and host country development, productivity and competitiveness

This area looks at strategic alliances (SAs) and mergers and acquisitions (M&As) as alternative means of achieving corporate growth and international diversification; the link between the strategy of the MNE and knowledge management; national and corporate culture in the formation of international business strategy; the endogeneity of government policy and institutions and the strategic decisions of firms; human factors in new forms of organisation.

Theme 3: Knowledge management, international entrepreneurship, property rights, and performance

Theme three studies knowledge management function and the organisation of the MNE; intangible assets, intellectual property protection and the form of international business. Performance issues include the "productivity gap" in the UK and the impact of foreign owned firms and international entrepreneurship.

Theme 4: Methodology in international business and management research

This last theme examines the issue of "credibility" in international business and management research, and the use of qualitative versus quantitative research methods, and both in combination; quantitative approaches to using qualitative data; the use of native categories in international business and management research. These themes will be developed within the existing area and mainstream specialisms through a family of linked projects.

Research activities

Research projects

To find out more about any of the projects outlined here, please contact the researchers involved. (Researchers' initials can be cross-checked against our people

  • China

    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in China Major topics: Spillover effects from inward foreign direct investment (FDI) (PJB, LJC)

    Barriers to, and policy issues arising from, FDI in China (LJC, ARC), FDI in automobiles (LJC, PJB) telecoms (LJC). Regional aspects of FDI in China (PJB, LJC).

    FDI by Chinese Firms Major topics: Motivation for Chinese investment abroad (PJB, ARC); impacts of Chinese outward investment in the home and host countries (PJB, LJC, HV).

    Knowledge transfer and management in Chinese multinationals (PJB, MJC, LJC).

    Knowledge and Technology Transfer and Reform of the Domestic Sector Major topic: Knowledge Transfer within multinational enterprises (MNEs) to China (PJB, MJC, LJC). 

    Technology transfer and reform in Chinese State owned Enterprises (LJC, PJB).

    Property Rights Issues in China Major topic: Intellectual property issues and FDI (LJC, ARC).
  • International Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances

    Major topic: The international strategic management and performance of international joint ventures (IJVs) (PJB).
  • Strategy of MNES

    Major topics: Transaction cost analysis of the MNE (PJB, MKC); International market entry modes (PJB, LJC, ARC).
  • Western Europe and Central and Eastern Europe

    Major topics: Economic transition in Eastern Europe and Russia (HGDM, MKC); FDI and the European Union (LJC).
  • FDI and Economic Integration in Europe and North America

    Major topics: Regional economic integration and foreign direct investment (PJB, LJC, NF, KTR); Spillovers from FDI.
  • India

    Major topics: Cross-cultural management and international business with India (MKC, NF); Motivations and policy issues for FDI into India (MKC, NF).
  • India - China FDI comparisons

    Major topic: a comparison of FDI stocks, flows, directions and policy in India and China (PJB, MKC, LJC, ARC, NF).
  • International Mergers and Acquisitions

    Major topic: National and corporate perceptions and international mergers and acquisitions (PJB, MKC, LJC, HGDM).
  • Knowledge Management in Multinational Enterprises

    Major topic: The sharing of knowledge within MNES (PJB, MJC, MK).
  • Globalisation

    Major topic: Theoretical analysis of globalisation and the MNE (PJB).

    Globalisation of small firms (PJB).

    The understanding of globalisation (MKC).
  • The Local Economy

    Major topic: The impact of globalisation on the local economy of Yorkshire (PJB, LJC, NF, ARC, MKC).
  • Taxation and the MNE

    Major topic: International transfer pricing and the MNE (PJB).
  • Ethnography and International Business

    Major topic: The methodology of ethnography in international business (MKC, HGDM).
  • Productivity, Innovation and MNEs (MK, PJB, LJC)

    Major topic: Productivity, Innovation and MNEs in the UK (MK, PJB, LJC).
  • Emerging Market Global Players

    Major topic: Ranking lists of emerging market based multinational enterprises, Taiwanese MNEs (ARC, HV in collaboration with Karl Sauvant of the Columbia Program on International Investment, Columbia University, New York, USA).
Seminar series

CIBUL holds a series of seminars and workshops for faculty and PhD students. These workshops include both formal seminars and informal research talks. For more information please contact Vicky Weeks (v.c.weeks@leeds.ac.uk). 



Mike Wright

Lost in Translation? Independent Boards and Blockholder Appropriation

Wednesday 21st March
11:00-12:30 (followed by a buffet lunch at 12:30)
LUBS 1.44


Emerging economies are oftentimes characterised by state capitalism, concentrated ownership and constrained resources, where firms face underinvestment due to resource misappropriation. Even the adoption of Anglo-American corporate governance practices may result in sub-optimal outcomes. We draw on the multiple agency perspective and research on cross-national governance to examine how independent directors, as agents with multiple roles, might mitigate blockholder appropriation. Using unique panel data from Russian publicly traded firms where the government and the business elite are predominant blockholders, we find that independent directors in private firms are less effective in mitigating blockholder appropriation than in state-owned enterprises. We further investigate board independence effects driven by the exposure to three international governance boundary conditions, namely Russian Multinational Enterprises, foreign listings of Russian firms, and foreign independent directors on Russian boards. Our study focuses on the agents that might mitigate principal-principal conflicts, explores when ineffective governance can be mitigated, and contributes to research on how governance practices developed in advanced economies get translated in emerging market economies.

Dylan Sutherland and Hu Zheyuan

What is the Impact of Overseas Technology Seeking Acquisitions on Domestic Innovation Performance in Chinese MNEs?

Wednesday 25th April
Liberty Building SR G.28


The question of whether emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) undertake ‘strategic asset seeking’ has attracted great interest in International Business (IB) studies. Many have argued, for example, that EMNEs acquire intangible strategic assets via foreign M&As with a view to rapidly incorporating foreign know-how to improve domestic innovation performance and thus subsequently improve their ‘catch-up’ capabilities. To date, however, only a few studies, mostly restricted to single cases, have examined the impacts of EMNE acquisitions on subsequent innovation performance. This research uses propensity score matching methodologies to investigate how technology seeking acquisitions affect innovation in Chinese (C)MNE parent firms. Our results suggest such acquisitions do lead to outperformance in innovation in CMNEs vis a vis similar domestic firms not making acquisitions. In addition, we consider how the characteristics of the acquiring parent firm influence its subsequent innovation performance. We look at the impacts of ownership (involvement of state versus private owner), business group affiliation and international experience. We find the latter two characteristics have a positive impact on the extent to which CMNEs can benefit from their acquisitions in terms of innovation performance (measured in both number of patents and citations). We discuss implications for better understanding current conceptual debates in the EMNE literature, such as the updated Linkage-Leverage-Learning model (Mathews, 2006; 2017) and the ‘springboard perspective’ (Luo and Tung, 2017).

Professor Niron Hashai


Wednesday 6th June
LUBS 1.31

Joint work with: Ohad Ref, Ono Academic College

The conventional view in international business is that, other things being equal, firms that invest more in research and development (R&D) are likely to be more internationalized.  In the current study, we show that this relationship is more complex than previously thought. First, we show that firms need to investment significantly more in R&D, relative to their industry peers, to have a higher likelihood to expand to new foreign markets.  Second, we show that, at some point, firms with extensively high R&D investments relative to their industry peers, reduce their likelihood to expand to new foreign markets. Third, we show that, underperforming firms with lower R&D investments than their industry peers also have a higher likelihood to expand to new foreign markets, and that the lower are these firms' R&D investments.

Niron Hashai is an Associate Professor at the Arison School of Business, the Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya, Israel and the Albertson-Waltuch Chair in Business Administration at the School of Business Administration at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Professor Hashai obtained his BSc in Computer Sciences from the Technion and his MBA and PhD from Tel Aviv University. His research interests include: theory of the multinational corporation, technological innovation, diversification, and growth patterns of high technology firms. His research was published in top strategy, management, international business and innovation journals, including: Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Management, Research Policy, Strategic Management Journal and Strategy Science. Professor Hashai serves on the boards of the Journal of International Business Studies, and the Global Strategy Journal, among others.

Professor Hashai is also a visiting Associate Professor at New York University, the Startup Nation visiting fellow at the Blavatnik School of Government, the University of Oxford, The Peter J. Buckley International Visiting Fellow at Leeds University Business School and an associate member at the John H. Dunning Research Centre, University of Reading.

Professor Hashai is co-founder of HUstart – the Hebrew University entrepreneurship center and the Israel Strategy Conference (ISC).


Professor Ammon Salter

Research Seminar – details of paper to follow

Wednesday 12th September
Room G.03, Cromer Terrace

Professor Ammon Salter has published a number of highly cited papers on openess and he will present a paper about innovation within the MNE – further details to follow.



Professor Davide Castellani

Explaining the complexity of foreign operations: The role of managerial and governance characteristics (with G. Békés, G. Benito and B. Muraközy).

Location: LUBS 1.44
Date: Thursday 30th November
Time: 15:00-16:30


Venturing abroad provide business opportunities for firms, but internationalization also increases the risks and difficulties of doing and profiting from business. The more opportunities that are pursued simultaneously, the higher the complexity, especially as firms simultaneously expand their geographical footprint and add new ways of operating internationally. Firms differ in their willingness and capacity to take on and manage such complexity. In this study, we examine the association between managerial and governance characteristics and the complexity of foreign operations. Specifically, we study how differences across firms regarding characteristics of their top management teams and CEOs as well as their governance attributes, explain firms’ proclivity to take on different levels of internationalization complexity. Using unique data from the EFIGE survey, our results suggest that management and governance indeed matter for explaining the degree of complexity of firms’ foreign operations.

Professor Christian Asmussen and Professor Niron Hashai

The Co-evolution of International Scope and Technological Knowledge

Location: Charles Thackrah SR4 1.04
Date: Wednesday 25th October
Time: 09:30-11:30


Two sets of relationships permeate research on technological knowledge and international scope for multinational firms: technological knowledge stimulates international expansion; and internationalization leads to technological enhancements. In this study we develop a model of the dynamic process in which both technological knowledge and international scope co-evolve. The model distinguishes between local, regional and global spans of firms' international scope and technology development efforts to predict the existence of several archetypical effects: (1) Saturation - where the current level of either international scope or technological knowledge limits their future expansion. (2) Internalization – where the current level of technological knowledge pushes for greater internationalization within given geographic boundaries.  (3) Fungibility – where the current level of technological knowledge influences internationalization across geographic boundaries. (4) Learning – where the firm's current geographic scope affects technological learning within geographic boundaries, and (5) Remote learning – where the firm's current geographic scope affects technological learning across geographic boundaries. The combination of these archetypes allows us identify multiple sets of complex co-evolution trajectories of international scope and technological knowledge and to offer a holistic view of different strands of internationalization theories. These relationships are tested on a unique, large longitudinal sample of Japanese multinational firms which includes comprehensive data on the geographic locations of these firms' operations as well as on the geographic location of their technological patenting.

Professor Tamer Cavusgil

Rigor, Relevance and Impact in International Business Research: Suggestions for Carrying out Impactful Research Projects

Location: LUBS 1.06
Date: Tuesday 24th October
Time: 13:00-14:30


Business practitioners complain about the esoteric nature of academic publications. Some academics argue that too many studies lack ‘scholarly robustness.’ What are their concerns? Are theoretical rigor and practical relevance competing objectives? How do we craft more balanced and impactful articles? How do build theoretical robustness into our research projects?

In addition to addressing these questions, Professor Cavusgil will suggest ways in which these concerns can be addressed. 

Dr Chris Jones

The Use of Tax Havens by British Multinationals After The Financial Crisis: ‘Business as Usual’

Location: LUBS 1.44
Date: Thursday 12th October
Time: 11:30-13:00


We investigate the use of tax havens by British multinational enterprises (MNEs) before and after the global financial crisis of 2008. We find that in the post crisis period, British MNEs increased their subsidiaries in tax haven locations as compared with the pre-crisis period. This suggests that recent media attention on the tax affairs of British based MNEs has had little impact on their activities. It seems to be “business as usual” in terms of tax avoidance. Our analysis takes advantage of a large firm-level dataset which allows the estimation of a variety of panel data models. We also find evidence of a causal link between austerity imposed upon Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) and the use of tax havens by MNEs.

Professor Mark Casson

The Theory of International Business: The Role of Economic Models

Location: LUBS 1.44
Date: Thursday 5th October
Time: 14:00-16:00


This paper reviews the scope for economic modelling in international business. It argues for a multi-level theory based on classical internalisation theory. The theory extends the ‘systems approach’ to the multinational enterprise in which modular activities, such as production, marketing and R&D, are linked by flows of semi-processed products and proprietary knowledge. It is shown how this theory can be extended from the firm level to the industry level in order to analyse inter-firm co-operation and rivalry. The theory can be extended to higher levels (e.g. the global economy) and lower levels (e.g. personal relationships within plants and offices).



Professor Christos Pitelis

Appropriability, Legacy-informed Entrepreneurial Imagination, and Cross-Border Organization
Professor Christos Pitelis, University of Bath

Location: Seminar Room 1.44
Date: 12 March 2015
Time: 14.00-16.00


This paper explores how entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial managers and organizations imagine future states of the world and embark upon a process of creation, co-creation, and development of cross-border markets and supporting business ecosystems that help them realize their visions. This process is examined conceptually and by drawing on historical case studies. These show how the emergence of the multinational enterprise (MNE) can be attributed to imaginative entrepreneurs, motivated by appropriability of returns on their perceived advantages, actions, and action potential, and who act upon their images and visions in order to shape, create and co-create their desired realities, often informed by their historical experiences. We claim that our approach challenges the extant theory of the MNE and helps appreciate better phenomena such as MNEs without apparent differential ‘ownership advantages’ and born-global firms.

Aline Gitignon

Organizational Learning through Alliance Secondments: Managing the Spin-Out, Spin-In Paradox in Cross-Sector Partnersh
Aline Gatignon, INSEAD

Location: Seminar Room 1.32
Date: 23 April 2015
Time: 14.00-16.00

Aline is currently a PhD candidate in Strategy at INSEAD. She will be joining the Multinational Management Department of the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania in July 2015.  Aline studies how organizations can develop their knowledge, skills and capabilities through cross-sector partnerships in emerging markets (i.e., alliances between private sector firms and public or non-profit sector organizations). Her dissertation builds on three hand-collected databases combining archival, interview and survey data. The empirical contexts she studies are cosmetics and banking in Brazil as well as logistics and healthcare partnerships in Africa, Latin America and Asia.Organizations are increasingly using external secondments to alliance partners to develop knowledge and skills: they temporarily detach employees to learn under unfamiliar conditions (‘spin-out’) and subsequently reintegrate them into the firm (‘spin-in’). The link between employee learning processes and alliance outcomes is critical to this process, yet it is so far insufficiently understood. Drawing on organizational learning and identity theory, I study how the intensity of coordination with the partner during secondment projects impacts two employee-level outcomes: 1) learning and 2) reintegration. I then explore how these employee-level outcomes feed into project success for the firm. I use mixed methods to develop and then test hypotheses, drawing on interview, archival and survey data on alliance secondments within a10-year partnership between global logistics provider TNT and the United Nations World Food Program. The results reveal a paradox: while intense coordination promotes employee learning during the spin-out, it hinders employee reintegration during the spin-in, for two reasons. First, knowledge developed through intense coordination is more difficult to leverage into employees’ usual professional environment. Second, intense coordination increases employees’ attachment to their partnership identity, creating a misalignment with the firm’s identity and values upon their return. Firms can become more cognizant of this paradox over time, and can mitigate its effects by fostering a sense that employees’ secondment experience is valued.


Professor Tomas Hult


Professor Tomas Hult, Michigan State University

Location: Meadow Teaching Room 1
Date: 12-13 October 2015
Time: 12 October 2015 10.00-12.00 and 14.00-16.00, 13 October 2015 10.00-12.00

It is the privilege of CIBUL to announce that the International Business “Research Capabilities” Seminar Series has invited Professor Tomas Hult as a distinguished guest speaker. On Tuesday 13th of October from 10.00 – 12.00, Professor Tomas Hult  will present one of his latest research paper entitled “Exporting: A review of the literature and intellectual cluster analysis”.  Professor Hult is consistently one of the most prominent business & economics scholars worldwide based on journal citations (top 25).

In addition, on Monday 12th of October from 14.00 – 16.00 CIBUL will organize a "Meet the Editor" session. During the session you can ask Professor Hult questions about publishing in top journals such as the Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Marketing, Journal of International Business Studies, etc. If you would like to publish in such outlets and need more information regarding the publication process and types of papers that generally are published in these journals, please come to the “meet the editor session” as well.

Both sessions are open for everybody (academic staff and PhD students)

Meet the editor session:
Room: Meadow Teaching Room 1
Time: October 12 (Tuesday) 14.00 – 16.00

Paper presentation:
Room: Meadow Teaching Room 1
Time: October 13 (Tuesday) 10.00 – 12.00

There will also be a session aimed at Early Career Researchers on October 12 2015 at 10.00-12.00.

Paper presentation: “Exporting: A review of the literature and intellectual cluster analysis”

About the author:

Tomas Hult is the Byington Endowed Chair, Professor of Marketing and International Business, and Director of the International Business Center (IBC) in the Eli Broad College of Business at Michigan State University (John W. Byington. Professor Hult is an elected Fellow of the Academy of International Business (one of only 85 scholars in the world bestowed with this honor and one of only 5 marketing scholars), and was Editor-in-Chief from 2009 to 2015 of the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. He is serving as Associate Editor of Journal of Marketing, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Decision Sciences, and Journal of Supply Chain Management; and has served as Associate Editor for the Journal of International Business Studies and Journal of Operations Management. Professor Hult is published numerous papers in top journals. He was ranked the 75th "most cited scientist in economics and business" (and 3rd in marketing) in the world by Thomson Reuters in their Essential Science Indicators covering a period from 1997 to 2007. Based on the Microsoft Academic Search, Tomas Hult is in the top 5 authors in "business administration and economics." Overall, his research has been cited some 23,000 times per Google Scholar.


David Midgley

Mindscapes across Landscapes: Diverse Culture Archetypes in Japan, USA, China and India
David Midgley, Insead

Date: 25 April 2014
Time: 13.00
Location: 1.44

Most culture-related research in international business aggregates people within a country into a single, homogeneous, national culture. But, in reality, there are often large differences among individuals within a country. Similarly, people with similar values are often found across national boundaries. Using Schwartz culture values and demographic data from the World Values Survey 2005, we find significant within-country heterogeneity and between-country commonality in Schwartz values. Our novel archetypal analysis method identifies four culture archetypes in Japan, USA and China, and six in India. The existence of both transnational and within-country archetypes suggests the need to recognize culture as a global or a sub-national phenomenon rather than as a national construct. Our results show that international business researchers and practitioners may need cultural schema that better reflect the real world of similarities and differences within and between countries.

Professor Midgley is a graduate in science, management and marketing from the Universities of Salford and Bradford in England. He was previously a Professor at the Australian Graduate School of Management and a long term visiting Professor at UCLA. He has been an invited scholar at the Stanford Graduate School of Business and the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. David Midgley’s latest book is The Innovation Manual: Integrated Strategies and Practical Tools for Bringing Value Innovation to the Market, (Wiley, 2008). www.theinnovationmanual.com This book provides the essentials of innovation for the practising manager based on an extensive synthesis of research and best practice. He has over 100 publications, including papers in leading journals such as the Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Information Technology, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Marketing, Marketing Science, Management Science, Organization Science, and Research Policy. He has also served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Consumer Research and the International Journal of Research in Marketing, . His principal areas of research are innovation and strategy.

Professor Ulf Andersson

Professor Ulf Andersson, editor of the Journal of International Business Studies
Professor Ulf Andersson, Copenhagen Business School & Maldaren University.

Date: 30 April 2014

Time: 18.00
Location: 1.32
Followed by a reception in LUBS Foyer

Professor Ulf Andersson, Editor of the Journal of International Business Studies conducted the first seminar on publishing.  The Journal of International Business Studies is an FT45 journal that publishes research from various fields including international management, finance, marketing and economics.

Professor Henrik Sattler

Brand–Country Image (BCI) Fit: A New Metric to Evaluate Brand Positioning Strategies
Professor Henrik Sattler, University of Hamburg

Date: 14 May 2014
Time: 14.00
Location: Leeds University Business School 1.44

Brand positioning strategies must determine the image attributes that produce favorable brand images. Although markets continue to globalize, local consumer culture or the culture of one’s home country remains a powerful influence, and consumers continue to prefer local consumption imagery. Managers thus face the question of how to identify image attributes that associate a brand’s positioning with local consumer culture. This article introduces a new diagnostic metric to evaluate brand positioning strategies: brand–country image fit (BCI-Fit). It measures the extent to which consumers in a specific country perceive a brand’s image as congruent with their home country’s image. The authors conceptualize and empirically analyze BCI-Fit for more than 1,000 brands and three countries, using Young & Rubicam’s Brand Asset Valuator data base and additional consumer survey data. They examine the impact of the proposed metric on consumers’ brand evaluations and analyze several moderators (e.g., variety seeking weakens the impact). Because the BCI-Fit metric employs a multi-attribute measurement approach, it provides guidance on which image dimensions and in which conditions managers may (re)position their brands.

Professor Bronwyn Hall

The Impact of Foreign Pharmaceutical Patents on Innovation in Chile Bronwyn H. Hall (with Maria Jose Abud and Christian Helmers)
Professor Bronwyn Hall

Date: 20 May 2014
Time: 15.00
Location: 1.09

Bronwyn H. Hall is Professor in the Graduate School at the University of California at Berkeley and Professor of Economics of Technology and Innovation at the University of Maastricht, Netherlands. She is a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Institute for Fiscal Studies, London and a Visiting Fellow at the National Institute of Economics and Social Research, London. For 30 years, she was the founding partner of TSP International, an econometric software firm. She received a B.A. in physics from Wellesley College in 1966 and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University in 1988.

Professor Hall has published articles on the economics and econometrics of technical change and innovation in journals such as Econometrica, the American Economic Review, the Rand Journal of Economics, and Research Policy. She is also the editor with Nathan Rosenberg of the Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, in the Elsevier series. Her current research includes comparative analysis of the U.S. and European patent systems, the use of patent citation data for the valuation of intangible (knowledge) assets, comparative firm‐level investment and innovation studies, measuring the returns to R&D and innovation at the firm level, analysis of technology policies such as R&D subsidies and tax incentives, and of recent changes in patenting behavior in the semiconductor and computer industries. She has made substantial contributions to applied economic research via the creation of software for econometric estimation and of firm‐level datasets for the study of innovation, including the widely used NBER dataset for U.S. patents.

Foreign multinational companies account for around 95% of pharmaceutical patents filed in Chile between 1991 and 2010. These patents account for over half of all patents filed in Chile during the past two decades. This study analyzes the impact of foreign pharmaceutical patenting behavior on the domestic pharmaceutical industry in Chile.

We analyze the patent filing strategies of foreign pharmaceutical companies and compare the characteristics of drugs sold on the Chilean market that are patented by foreign multinationals to those that are patented by domestic companies or not patented. In addition, the study investigates whether and in which way foreign pharmaceutical companies 'work' these patents and analyze the effect of this choice on domestic companies behavior, in terms of drugs developed and marketed.

The analysis relies on a mapping of patents filed in Chile to pharmaceutical products, as well as information on the way foreign companies 'work' their patents. To empirically measure whether and in which way firms 'work' their patents, the study combines information on patents and trademarks at the product level with information from the public health register.

The results indicate a negative association between the share of foreign patents and the number of domestic drugs even within broad therapeutic classes. Foreign firms rely in particular increasingly on the filing of "secondary" pharmaceutical patents (patents on modified compounds, formulations, dosages, particular medical uses etc.) to extend basic patent protection in breadth and length to keep domestic generic producers off the market.

Professor Christian Ringle

The Assessment of Heterogeneity Revisited: Across Group Similarities and within Group Differences
Professor Christian Ringle, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany, and University of Newcastle, Australia

Date: 12 September 2014
Time: 12.00 – 13:30
Location: 1.44

International business research analyses, compares and explains heterogeneity between countries or cultures. This research looks at the evidence for observed and latent heterogeneity within empirical data. Examining data for two specific a priori defined groups reveals only modest differences. However, latent mixture PLS path modeling (FIMIX-PLS) uncovers two different segments within each group. This analysis demonstrates substantial differences across these segments—but a surprising similarity across groups. An importance performance matrix analysis illustrates these differences and is a foundation to develop managerial implications. Overall, this study highlights the potential for heterogeneity in international business research.

Professor Joanna Oxley

Offshore Outsourcing and Innovation In The Mobile Phone Industry (joint with Juan Alcacer and Ramon Lecuona)
Professor Joanne Oxley, University of Toronto

Date: 17 September 2014
Time: 13.45 – 15.15
Location: Leeds University Business School 1.31

Presentation abstract:
We document the evolution of outsourcing strategy in an industry that has witnessed a dramatic rise in offshore outsourcing and the emergence of a multitude of specialized suppliers over the past decade. Through analysis of a comprehensive and detailed dataset of supply relationships for the design and manufacture of all mobile handsets introduced worldwide from the beginning of the outsourcing trend, we explore the evolving logic guiding outsourcing strategy in the industry, and trace the effect of offshore outsourcing on the innovative performance of leading producers and suppliers.

Joanne Oxley is Professor of Strategic Management at the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto, Canada. Her research lies at the intersection of strategy and international business, exploring topics related to inter-firm collaboration, outsourcing, and the impact of international differences in economic and institutional environments on firm strategy and performance. Joanne's publications have appeared in many leading academic journals, and she currently serves as an Associate Editor at Strategic Management Journal and Management Science, and as Consulting Editor at the Journal of International Business Studies.

Professor Giana Eckhardt

Buddhism and Consumption
Professor Giana Eckhardt, Royal Holloway-University of London

Date: Friday 3 October 2014
Time: 12.00
Location: Leeds University Business School 1.44

Abstract:Buddhism as a belief system views important constructs in marketing in ways not seen in the literature to date. For example, Buddhism emphasizes the importance of eliminating desire for material goods (marketing tries to stimulate this desire), and the perils of becoming attached to material possessions (marketing encourages attachment in a variety of forms, most notably brand loyalty). Past research has noted that Buddhism affects consumer's behavior to a larger extent than other spiritual belief systems. What does Buddhist consumption look like? This is investigated in China, where Buddhism has been the primary spiritual belief system for thousands of years. We take an ethnographic approach, focusing on Buddhist monks as well as Buddhist consumers in urban, Eastern China. We supplement in-depth interviews with observation and immersion in a variety of new and old Buddhist sites. Our findings focus on the nature of materialism, consumer desire and product/brand relationships, which differ significantly to our understanding of these constructs to date. These findings allow us to question and redefine core theories in marketing. This is especially important as the influence of Buddhism is spreading around the world, and in the West is often thought to be a solution to overconsumption.

Professor Jean Francois Hennart

European Differences in the Extent of Family Firm Internationalization
Professor Jean Francois Hennart, Tilburg University

Date: Tuesday 21 October 2014
Time: 15.00
Location: Leeds University Business School 1.44

Most firms around the world are owned and run by families. Yet, surprisingly, there is only limited research on whether this form of governance encourages or discourages internationalization and empirical evidence to date is inconclusive. While most of the literature has argued that family control discourages internationalization, we suggest that this only applies to firms that sell mass-market products requiring local production and adaptation, and hence large scale as well as specially trained managers. On the contrary, we argue that family firms will have greater foreign sales than nonfamily firms when they follow global niche strategies. These strategies focus on high product and service quality and long term relationships with clients, two strategies well-suited for family firm governance. Modelling a firm’s foreign sales through a gravity model, we test our hypotheses on a large sample of firms from five European Union countries. Our results show that while family control per se reduces international sales for UK, Italian and French firms, it increases them when family-run firms based in these countries pursue global niche strategies.

Professor Desislava Dikova

Export diversity or focus? What strategy is best for first-time internationalizing SMEs from an emerging market?
Professor Desislava Dikova, Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (WU)

Date: Thursday, 23rd October 2014
Time: 12.00
Location: Leeds University Business School G.31
The question how much internationalization is beneficial for emerging-market small and medium enterprises (EM SMEs) remains challenging for both international business (IB) scholars and managers. We explore export strategies of first time exporters and focus on the scope of EM SMEs internationalization activities. We tackle the question whether more focused or more diversified internationalization through exporting is beneficial for EM SMEs. We examine the impact of foreign market (geographic) diversification, product diversification and export intensity on firm performance of an entire population of EM SMEs from an emerging east European economy. In addition, we test whether a complex export strategy—an export strategy of simultaneous product- and geographic export diversification—is beneficial for EM SMEs. We use a panel population data of first time Slovenian exporters in the period 1994-2012. We find that diversified internationalization, both in terms of product- and foreign market diversity, and export intensity significantly improve productivity and sales performance for EM SMEs. Furthermore, EM SMEs with complex export strategies enjoy significantly improved productivity and sales performance.

Professor Gabriel Benito

An empirical examination of a transaction cost explanation of FDI capital structure
Professor Gabriel Benito, BI-Norwegian School of Business

Date: Tuesday 4 November 2014
Time: 15.00
Location: Leeds University Business School 1.44


Transaction cost theory (TCT) explains multinational enterprise (MNE) boundaries, and is increasingly applied to intra-MNE governance. We apply TCT to capital structure decisions for MNE subsidiaries. Following TCT, equity and debt are not just financial instruments, but also alternative governance structures. Debt is based on market mechanisms, while equity has features of hierarchy and is important for projects involving specific assets that cannot serve as collateral, especially under conditions of strong external uncertainty. We apply the theory to the intra-MNE context, where headquarters (HQs) nominally own all assets and there may be greater redeployability of assets within firms. We argue that internal governance costs may lead HQs to re-introduce the price mechanism through debt, while imperfect HQs' ownership of and limits to the redeployability of subsidiary assets promote equity financing. Thus, even within firms, imperfections suggest a rationale for differentiated use of equity, internal debt and external debt. We test our predictions using subsidiary-level panel data on Norwegian outward foreign direct investment (FDI) from 2003 to 2006, measuring asset specificity by R&D-related variables and external uncertainty by political risk indices. We find partial support for our arguments, but robustness checks suggest the results are sensitive to measurement and estimation

Selected publications

Selected publications 2017

  • Devinney TM, Hohberger J. (2017), 'The Past is Prologue: Moving on from Culture’s Consequences' Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.48 (1), 48-62
  • Qu Y, Wei Y, Jiang T, Zheng N. (2017), 'Linking R&D strategy, national innovation system and FDI to firm performance' Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Vol.15 (1), 41-58
  • Hult GTM, Morgeson III FV, Morgan NA, Mithas S, Fornell C. (2017), 'Do managers know what their customers think and why?' Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.45 (1), 37-54
  • Khan Z, Rao-Nicholson R, Akhtar P, Tarba SY, Ahammad MF, Vorley T. (2017), 'The role of HR practices in developing employee resilience: a case study from the Pakistani telecommunications sector' International Journal of Human Resource Management
  • Belk R, Caldwell M, Devinney TM, Eckhardt GM, Henry P, Kozinets R, Plakoyiannaki ME. (2017), 'Envisioning consumers: How videography can contribute to marketing knowledge' Journal of Marketing Management
  • Boateng A, Du M, Wang Y, Wang C, Ahammad MF. (2017), 'Explaining the surge in M&A as an entry mode: home country and cultural influences' International Marketing Review, Vol.34 (1), 87-108
  • Chabowski BR, Samiee S, Hult GTM. (2017), 'Cross-national research and international business: An interdisciplinary path' International Business Review, Vol.26 (1), 89-101
  • Kampouri K, Plakoyiannaki ME, Leppäaho T. (2017), 'Family Business Internationalisation and Networks: Emerging Pathways' Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, Vol.32 (3)
  • Ahammad MF, Leone V, Tarba SY, Glaister KW, Arslan A. (2017), 'Equity Ownership in Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions by British Firms: An Analysis of Real Options and Transaction Cost Factors' British Journal of Management, Vol.28 (2), 180-196
  • Vahtera P, Buckley PJ, Aliyev M, Clegg J, Cross AR. (2017), 'Influence of social identity on negative perceptions in global virtual teams' Journal of International Management
  • Buckley PJ, Munjal S, Enderwick P, Forsans N. (2017), 'The Role of Country Alliances in Reducing the Transaction Costs of Internationalisation: Evidence from Indian Multinational Enterprises' Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol.41 (3), 807-828
  • Liu X, Vehtera P, Wang C, Wang J, Wei Y. (2017), 'The delicate balance: Managing technology adoption and creation in multinational affiliates in an emerging economy' International Business Review, Vol.26, 515-526
  • Pereira V, Malik A, Howe-Walsh L, Munjal S, Hirekhan M. (2017), 'Managing Yopatriates: A Longitudinal Study of Generation Y Expatriates in an Indian Multi-national Corporation' Journal of International Management, Vol.23 (2), 151-165
  • Qu Y, Wei Y. (2017), 'The Role of Domestic Institutions and FDI on Innovation—Evidence from Chinese Firms' Asian Economic Papers, Vol.16 (2) 55-76
  • Fowler R, Gajewska-De Mattos H, Chapman M. (2017), 'Adapting Adaptation: Expanding Adaptive Strategy Theory to Account for the East Asian Business Context' Journal of World Business
  • Khan Z, Soundararajan V, Wood G, Ahammad MF. (2017), 'Employee emotional resilience during post-merger integration across national boundaries: Rewards and the mediating role of fairness norms' Journal of World Business
  • Krammer MS. (2017), 'Science, technology, and innovation for economic competitiveness: the role of smart specialization in less-developed countries' Technological Forecasting and Social Change
  • Buckley PJ, Munjal S. (2017), 'The role of local context in the cross-border acquisitions by emerging economy multinational enterprises' British Journal of Management, Vol.28 (3), 372-389
  • Krammer MSS, Strange R, Lashitew A. (2017), 'The export performance of emerging economy firms: The influence of firm capabilities and institutional environments' International Business Review
  • Buckley PJ, Tian X. (2017), 'Transnationality and Financial Performance in the Era of the Global Factory' Management International Review, Vol.57 (4), 501-528
  • Konwar Z, Papageorgiadis N, Ahammad MF, Tian Y, McDonald F, Wang C. (2017), 'Marketing Capabilities and the Performance of Foreign Affiliates in Developing Economies - the Role of Ownership Mode and Sub-National Location' International Marketing Review, Vol.34 (5)
  • Konwar Z, Papageorgiadis N, Ahammad MF, Tian Y, McDonald FE, Wang C. (2017), 'Dynamic marketing capabilities, foreign ownership modes, sub-national locations and the performance of foreign affiliates in developing economies' International Marketing Review
  • Lei L, Voss H, Clegg LJ, Wu X. (2017), 'Climate change strategies of multinational enterprises in China' Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol.160 98-108
  • Hair JF, Hult GTM, Ringle CM, Sarstedt M, Thiele KO. (2017), 'Mirror, mirror on the wall: a comparative evaluation of composite-based structural equation modeling methods' Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.45 (5), 616-632
  • Vahtera P, Buckley P, Aliyev M. (2017), 'Affective conflict and identification of knowledge sources in MNE teams' International Business Review, Vol.26 (5) 881-895
  • Buckley PJ, Tian X. (2017), 'Internalization Theory and the Performance of Emerging-Market Multinational Enterprises' International Business Review, Vol.26 (5) 976-990
  • Wei T, Clegg J. (2017), 'Exploring sources of value destruction in international acquisitions: A synthesized theoretical lens' International Business Review, Vol.26 (5), 927-941
  • Munjal S, Budhwar P, Pereira V. (2017), 'A perspective on multinational enterprise’s national identity dilemma' Social Identities, 1-16
  • Pham TSH, Ahammad MF. (2017), 'Antecedents and consequences of online customer satisfaction: A holistic process perspective' Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol.124, 332-342

Selected publications 2016

  • Buckley PJ. (2016), ‘The Contribution of Internalization Theory to International Business: New Realities and Unanswered Questions' Journal of World Business, Vol.51 (1), 74-82
  • Pereira V, Munjal S, Nandakumar MK. (2016), ‘Reverse Dependency: A Longitudinal Case Study Investigation into Headquarter- Subsidiary Relationship in the Context of an Emerging Economy' International Studies of Management and Organization, Vol.46 (1) 50-62
  • Wilden R, Devinney TM, Dowling GR. (2016), ‘The Architecture of Dynamic Capability Research Identifying the Building Blocks of a Configurational Approach' Academy of Management Annals, Vol.10 (1), 997-1076
  • Wowak KD, Craighead CW, Ketchen DJ, Hult GTM. (2016), ‘Toward a “Theoretical Toolbox” for the Supplier-Enabled Fuzzy Front End of the New Product Development Process' Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.52 (1), 66-81
  • Kostova T, Hult GTM. (2016), ‘Meyer and Peng’s 2005 article as a foundation for an expanded and refined international business research agenda: Context, organizations, and theories' Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.47 (1), 23-32
  • Triantos A, Plakoyiannaki E, Outra E, Petridis N. (2016), ‘Anthropomorphic Packaging: Is There Life on Mars?' European Journal of Marketing, Vol.50, 260-275
  • Buckley PJ, Munjal S, Enderwick P, Forsans N. (2016), ‘Do foreign resources assist or impede internationalisation? Evidence from internationalisation of Indian multinational enterprises' International Business Review, Vol.25 (1), 130-140
  • Buckley PJ, Prashantham S. (2016), ‘Global Interfirm Networks: The Division of Entrepreneurial Labour between MNEs and SMEs' Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol.30 (1), 40-58
  • Ahammad MF, Tarba SY, Liu Y, Glaister KW. (2016), ‘Knowledge transfer and cross-border acquisition performance: The impact of cultural distance and employee retention' International Business Review, Vol.25 (1), 66-75
  • Krammer SMS. (2016), ‘The role of diversification profiles and dyadic characteristics in the formation of technological alliances: Differences between exploitation and exploration in a low-tech industry' Research Policy, Vol.45 (2), 517-532
  • Katsikeas CS, Morgan NA, Leonidou LC, Hult GTM. (2016), ‘Assessing Performance Outcomes in Marketing' Journal of Marketing, Vol.80 (2), 1-20
  • Kafouros M, Aliyev M. (2016), ‘Institutional development and firm profitability in transition economies' Journal of World Business, Vol.51 (3), 369-378
  • Torres MM, Clegg LJ, Varum CA. (2016), ‘The Missing Link Between Awareness and Use in the Uptake of Pro-Internationalization' International Business Review, Vol.25 (2), 495-510
  • Buckley PJ, Boddewyn JJ. (2016), ‘A manifesto for the widening of internalisation theory, being a reply to Hillemann and Verbeke' Multinational Business Review, Vol.24 (1), 2-7
  • Ahammad MF, Tarba SY, Liu Y, Glaister KW, Cooper CL. (2016), ‘Exploring the factors influencing the negotiation process in cross-border M&A' International Business Review, Vol.25 (2), 445-457
  • Gudergan SP, Devinney TM, Ellis RS. (2016), ‘Cooperation and compliance in non-equity alliances' Journal of Business Research, Vol.69 (5), 1759-1764
  • Dent CM, Bale CSE, Wadud Z, Voss H. (2016), ‘Cities, energy and climate change mitigation: An introduction' Cities, Vol.54, 1-3
  • Elliott C, Konara P, Wei Y. (2016), ‘Competition, Cooperation and Regulatory Intervention Impacts on Independent School Fees' International Journal of the Economics of Business, Vol.23 (2), 243-262
  • He X, Lin Z, Wei Y. (2016), ‘International market selection and export performance: a transaction cost analysis' European Journal of Marketing, Vol.50, 916-941
  • Aliyev M, Kafouros M. (2016), ‘Institutions and foreign subsidiary growth in transition economies: The role of intangible assets and capabilities' Journal of Management Studies, Vol.53 (4), 580-607
  • Leppäaho T, Plakoyiannaki E, Dimitratos P. (2016), ‘The Case Study in Family Business: An Analysis of Current Research Practices and Recommendations' Family Business Review, Vol.29 (2), 159-173
  • Buckley PJ, Chen L, Clegg LJ, Voss H. (2016), ‘Experience and FDI Risk-taking: A Microfoundational Reconceptualization' Journal of International Management, Vol.22 (2), 131-146
  • Buckley PJ. (2016), ‘Alan Rugman and internalisation theory' International Business Review, Vol.25 (3), 753-757
  • Cavusgil ST, Buckley PJ. (2016), ‘Interdisciplinary perspectives on the middle class phenomenon in emerging markets Introduction' International Business Review, Vol.25 (3), 621-623
  • Buckley PJ, Verbeke A. (2016), ‘Smiling and crying curves in international business' International Business Review, Vol.25 (3), 749-752
  • Bamiatzi V, Bozos K, Cavusgil ST, Hult GTM. (2016), ‘Revisiting the firm, industry, and country effects on profitability under recessionary and expansion periods: A multilevel analysis' Strategic Management Journal, Vol.37 (7), 1448-1471
  • Lindsay V, Antoniou C. (2016), ‘Applying foreign entry market strategies to UK higher education transnational education models' Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education, Vol.20, 51-58
  • Clegg J, Voss H. (2016), ‘The new two-way street of Chinese direct investment in the European Union' China-EU Law Journal, Vol.5 (1), 79-100
  • Boyd BK, Solarino AM. (2016), ‘Ownership of Corporations A Review, Synthesis, and Research Agenda' Journal of Management, Vol.42 (5), 1282-1314
  • Giebelhausen M, Chun HH, Cronin JJ, Hult GTM. (2016), ‘Adjusting the Warm-Glow Thermostat: How Incentivizing Participation in Voluntary Green Programs Moderates Their Impact on Service Satisfaction' Journal of Marketing, Vol.80 (4), 56-71
  • Zeng J, Glaister KW. (2016), ‘Competitive Dynamics between Multinational Enterprises and Local Internet Platform Companies in the Virtual Market in China' British Journal of Management, Vol.27 (3), 479-496
  • Buckley PJ, Munjal S, Enderwick P, Forsans N. (2016), ‘Cross-border Acquisitions by Indian Multinationals: Asset Exploitation or Asset Augmentation?' International Business Review, Vol.25 (4), 986-996
  • Clegg J, Lin HM, Voss H, Yen IF, Shih YT. (2016), ‘The OFDI Patterns and Firm Performance of Chinese Firms: The Moderating Effects of Multinationality Strategy and External Factors' International Business Review, Vol.25 (4), 971-985
  • Buckley PJ, Munjal S, Enderwick P, Forsans N. (2016), ‘The role of experiential and non-experiential knowledge in cross-border acquisitions: The case of Indian multinational enterprises' Journal of World Business, Vol.51 (5), 675-685
  • Buckley PJ, Yu P, Liu Q, Munjal S, Tao P. (2016), ‘The Institutional Influence on the Location Strategies of Multinational Enterprises from Emerging Economies: Evidence from China’s Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions' Management and Organization Review, Vol.12 (3), 425-445
  • Fornell C, Morgeson FV, Hult GTM. (2016), ‘Stock Returns on Customer Satisfaction Do Beat the Market: Gauging the Effect of a Marketing Intangible' Journal of Marketing, Vol.80 (5), 92-107
  • Fornell C, Morgeson FV, Hult GTM. (2016), ‘An Abnormally Abnormal Intangible: Stock Returns on Customer Satisfaction' Journal of Marketing, Vol.80 (5), 122-125
  • Auger P, Devinney TM, Dowling G, Eckert C. (2016), ‘Inertia and Discounting in the Selection of Socially Responsible Investments: An Experimental Investigation' Annals in Social Responsibility, Vol.2 (1)
  • Short JC, McKenny AF, Ketchen DJ, Snow CC, Hult GTM. (2016), ‘An Empirical Examination of Firm, Industry, and Temporal Effects on Corporate Social Performance' Business & Society, Vol.55 (8), 1122-1156
  • Vasilaki A, Tarba S, Ahammad MF, Glaister AJ. (2016), ‘The moderating role of transformational leadership on HR practices in M&A integration' The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol.27 (20), 2488-2504
  • Lin N, Devinney TM, Holcomb TR. (2016), ‘Examining Managerial Preferences and Choice: The Role of Value Creation and Value Appropriation Drivers in Strategic Outsourcing' Long Range Planning, Vol.49 (6), 706-722
  • Dimitratos P, Johnson JE, Plakoyiannaki E, Young S. (2016), ‘SME Internationalization: How Does the Opportunity-Based International Entrepreneurial Culture Matter?' International Business Review, Vol.25 (6), 1211-1222
  • Buckley PJ. (2016), ‘Historical Research Approaches to the Analysis of Internationalisation' Management International Review, Vol.56 (6), 879-900

Selected publications 2015

  • Buckley PJ, Sutherland D, Voss H, El-Gohari A. (2015), ‘The Economic Geography of Offshore Incorporation in Tax Havens and Offshore Financial Centres: The Case of Chinese MNEs', Journal of Economic Geography, Vol.15 (1), 103-128
  • Liu X, Gao L, Lu J, Wei Y. (2015), ‘The role of highly skilled migrants in the process of inter-firm knowledge transfer across borders', Journal of World Business, Vol.50 (1), 56-68
  • Wang C, Yi J, Kafouros M, Yan Y. (2015), ‘Under what institutional conditions do business groups enhance innovation performance?' Journal of Business Research, Vol.68 (3) 694-702
  • Buckley PJ, Sutherland D, Voss H, El-Gohari A. (2015), ‘The Economic Geography of Offshore Incorporation in Tax Havens and Offshore Financial Centres: The Case of Chinese MNEs' Journal of Economic Geography
  • McDonald F. (2015), ‘Institutional systems and catch-up in China' Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies Vol.13 (1), 1-15
  • Sunny Yang S-J, Emma Liu Y (2015), ‘Anticipated responses: The positive side of elicited reactions to competitive action' Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol.66 (2), 316-330
  • Andersson U, Buckley PJ, Dellestrand H. (2015), ‘In the Right Place at the Right Time!: The Influence of Knowledge Governance Tools on Knowledge Transfer and Utilization in MNEs' Global Strategy Journal Vol.5 (1), 27-47
  • Wei T, Clegg J. (2015), Overcoming the Liability of Foreignness in Internationalization in Emerging Economies: Lessons from Acquiring a Chinese Firm' Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol.57 (2), 103-117
  • Wei T, Clegg J, Ma L. (2015), ‘The conscious and unconscious facilitating role of the Chinese government in shaping the internationalization of Chinese MNCs' International Business Review Vol.24 (2), 331-343
  • Kafouros M, Wang C, Piperopoulos P, Zhang M. (2015), ‘Vive les différences? Voice in French MNCs' overseas workplaces: a comparative study of voice in French, German and US subsidiaries in the UK' Research Policy Vol.44 (3), 803-817
  • Zhang J, Ahammad MF, Tarba S, Cooper CL, Glaister KW, Wang J. (2015), ‘The effect of leadership style on talent retention during Merger and Acquisition integration: evidence from China' The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol.26 (7), 1021-1050
  • Tüselmann H-J, Allen MMC, McDonald F. (2015), ‘Vive les différences? Voice in French MNCs' overseas workplaces: a comparative study of voice in French, German and US subsidiaries in the UK' The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol.26 (8), 1152-1168
  • Chen LM, Liu YE, Yang SJS. (2015), ‘Robust supply chain strategies for recovering from unanticipated disasters' Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Vol.77, 198-214
  • Buckley PJ, Strange R. (2015), ‘The Governance of the Global Factory: Location and Control of World Economic Activity' Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol.29 (2), 237-249
  • Krammer SMS. (2015), ‘Do good institutions enhance the effect of technological spillovers on productivity? Comparative evidence from developed and transition economies' Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol.94, 133-154
  • Kafouros M, Wang EY. (2015), ‘Technology transfer within China and the role of location choices' International Business Review, Vol.24 (3), 353-366
  • Devinney TM. (2015), ‘Annals in Social Responsibility: Bringing New Perspectives to the Study of Social Responsibility' Annals in Social Responsibility, Vol.1 (1)
  • Arrfelt M, Wiseman RM, McNamara G, Hult GTM. (2015), ‘Examining a key corporate role: The influence of capital allocation competency on business unit performance' Strategic Management Journal, Vol.36 (7), 1017-1034
  • Hsu WC, Wang C, Clegg J. (2015), ‘The Effects of Outward Foreign Direct Investment on Fixed-Capital Formation at Home: The Roles of Host Location and Industry Characteristics' Global Economic Review, Vol.44 (3), 353-368
  • Glaister KW, Ahammad MF, Junni P. (2015), ‘Special issue of International Journal of Human Resource Management: Organizational ambidexterity and human resource practices' The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol.26 (13), 1785-1789
  • Yi J, Chen Y, Wang C, Kafouros M. (2015), ‘Spillover Effects of Foreign Direct Investment: How do Region-Specific Institutions Matter?' Management International Review, Vol.55 (4), 539-631
  • Munjal S, Pereira V. (2015), ‘Opportunities and challenges for multiple-embeddedness through mergers and acquisitions in emerging economies' Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol.28 (5), 817-831
  • Ozkaya HE, Droge C, Hult GTM, Calantone R, Ozkaya E. (2015), ‘Market orientation, knowledge competence, and innovation' International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol.32 (3), 309-318
  • Buckley, OBE PJ, Boddewyn JJ. (2015), ‘The internalization of societal failures by multinational enterprises' Multinational Business Review, Vol.23 (3), 170-187
  • Hult GTM. (2015), ‘JAMS 2010–2015: literature themes and intellectual structure' Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.43 (6), 663-669
  • Caprar DV, Devinney TM, Kirkman BL, Caliguri P. (2015), ‘Conceptualizing and Measuring Culture in International Business and Management: From Challenges to Potential Solutions' Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.46 (9), 1011-1027
  • Kozlenkova IV, Hult GTM, Lund DJ, Mena JA, Kekec P. (2015), ‘The Role of Marketing Channels in Supply Chain Management' Journal of Retailing, Vol.91 (4), 586-609
  • Faisal Ahammad M, Mook Lee S, Malul M, Shoham A. (2015), ‘Behavioral Ambidexterity: The Impact of Incentive Schemes on Productivity, Motivation, and Performance of Employees in Commercial Banks' Human Resource Management, Vol.54 (1), 45-62

Selected publications 2014

  • Devinney, T., 2014 Volume 27, Advances in International Management Orchestration of the Global Network Organisation.
  • Devinney, T., 2014, Volume 28,  Advances in International Management focuses on Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises and was headlined with a special conference at Northeastern University in September 2014.
  • Buckley, P., 2014 “The Applied Economics of (International) Business: A Personal Perspective on Research” International Journal of the Economics of Business, Vol. 21 No. 1
  • Buckley, P., Chapman, M., Clegg, J. and Gajewska-De Mattos, H. 2014, ‘A linguistic and philosophical analysis of emic and etic and their use in international business research’, Management International Review, Volume 54, Issue 3, Page 307-324
  • Hong, J., Wang, C., & Kafouros, M. (2014). The Role of the State in Explaining the Internationalization of Emerging Market Enterprises. British Journal of Management.
  • Buckley, P. J., Elia, S., & Kafouros, M. (2014). Acquisitions by emerging market multinationals: Implications for firm performance. Journal of World Business, 49(4), 611-632.
  • Wang, C., Yi, J., Kafouros, M., & Yan, Y. (2014). Under what institutional conditions do business groups enhance innovation performance?. Journal of Business Research.
  • Kafouros, M., and Wang, E. Y. (2014). Technology transfer within China and the role of location choices. International Business Review.

Selected publications 2013

  • Buckley, P.J.,  2013 “The Spatial Redistribution of Japanese Direct Investment in the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2010 (co-authors Adam Cross and Sierk Horn) Business History, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2013, pp 405-430.
  • Buckley, P.J.,  2013 “Meta-analytic research in international business and international management” (co-authors Timothy M. Devinney and Ryan W. Tang Advances in International Management Vol. 26, 2013, pp 263–297.
  • Voss, H. 2013, The Internationalization of Mainland Chinese Businesses in Menkhoff, T., Evers, H.,  Wah, C.Y(ed.) Catalyst for Change: Chinese Business in Asia.  World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd.

Selected publications 2012

  • Kafouros M.I. Wang, M. Wright and J. Hong (2012) Exploring the role of government involvement in outward FDI from emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS), 43, 655-676.
  • Yi, J. Wang, C. Kafouros, M. (2012) The Effects of Innovative Capabilities on Exporting: Do Institutional Forces Matter?. International Business Review, forthcoming.
  • Kafouros M.I. Buckley P.J., Clegg, J. (2012) The Effects of Global Knowledge Reservoirs on the Productivity of Multinational Enterprises: The Role of International Depth and Breadth. Research Policy, 41(5), 848-861.
  • Kafouros M.I. and N. Forsans (2012) The role of Open Innovation in emerging economies: Do Companies Profit from the Scientific Knowledge of others? Journal of World Business, 47, 362-370.

Selected publications 2011

  • Buckley, P., 2011 "Globalization and the Global Factory", Edward Elgar.
  • Voss, H., 2011, "The Determinants of Chinese Outward Direct Investment", Edward Elgar.
  • Buckley, P., (forth). “International Integration and Coordination in the Global Factory” Management International Review.
  • Buckley, P., Liesch, P.S., & Welch, L.W., (forth) “Risk and Uncertainty in Internationalisation and International Entrepreneurship Studies Review and Conceptual Development”, Management International Review.
  • Buckley, P., & Strange, R., (forth). “The Governance of the Multinational Enterprise: Insights from Internalisation Theory”,  Journal of Management Studies.
  • Buckley, P., Glaister, K., Klijn, E., & Tan, H., (forth). “Knowledge accession and knowledge acquisition in strategic alliances: the impact of supplementary and complementary dimensions" British Journal of Management.
  • Buckley, P., Chapman, M., Clegg, J. & Gajewska-De Mattos, H. 2011 (forth). 'Doing business in developing and transitional countries: an empirical example of the dominant logic and its alternative', International Studies of Management and Organization, focused issue From Dilemma to Theory to Research Agenda: Doing Business in Developing and Transitional Countries, Spring 2011, 41(1)

Selected publications 2010

  • Buckley, P.J., Voss, H., & Cross, A., 2010 “The Impact of Home Country Institutional Effects on the Internationalization Strategy of Chinese Firms”. The Multinational Business Review, 18(3): 25-48.
  • Fetscherin, M., Voss, H., & Gugler, P., 2010. "30 Years of Foreign Direct Investment to China: An Interdisciplinary literature review". International Business Review, 19(3): 235-246.
  • Buckley, P.J, Klijin, E., Reuer, J.J., & Glaister, K.W., 2010 "Combinations of partners' joint venture formation motives", European Business Review, 22(6),: 576 – 590.
  • Buckley, P.J., Forsans, N. Cross, A., & Horn, S., 2010. “The rise of the Asian multinational firm” Asian Business & Management, Vol. 9, 2010 pp 293–297.
  • Buckley, P.J., Chapman, M,, Clegg, J., & Gajewska De Mattos, H,. 2010. “Doing business in developing and transitional countries, an empirical example of the dominant logic and its alternative” International Studies of Management and Organisation 41(1).
  • Buckley, P.J., 2010. “Acquisitions from emerging countries: what factors influence the performance of target firms in advanced countries?” (co-authors Peter J. Buckley, Stefano Elia, Mario Kafouros) European Journal of International Management 4(1/2): 30 - 47.
  • Buckley, P.J., 2010. “The Theory of International Business Pre-Hymer” Journal of World Business. 46(1).
  • Griffiths, M.B., Christiansen, F., & Chapman, M. 2010. 'Chinese Consumers: The Romantic Reappraisal’. Forthcoming in Ethnography 2010.
  • Chapman, M., Clegg, J. & Gajewska-De Mattos, H. 2010.  'Multiple language use in international mergers and acquisitions', European Journal International Management, 4(1)

Selected publications 2009

  • Griffiths, M.B. 2009 ‘Eating Bitterness: Re-enacting the Primitive Rural’. in Hernández, L. and Krajewski, S (eds). Crossing Cultural Boundaries: Taboo, Bodies and Identities. 159-173. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Voss, H., Buckley, P.J. & Cross, A.R. 2009. An Assessment of the Effects of Institutional Change on Chinese Outward Direct Investment Activity. In I. Alon, J. Chang, M. Fetscherin, C. Lattemann and J.R. McIntyre (eds) China Rules: Globalization and Political Transformation, Palgrave Macmillan: London, pp. 135-165.
  • Wang C., Clegg. J.L., Kafouros M.I. 2009. Country-of-Origin Effects of Foreign Direct Investment: An Industry Level Analysis, Management International Review, 49(2), 179-198.
  • Wang C. and Kafouros, M.I. 2009. What Factors Determine Innovation Performance in Emerging Economies? Evidence from China. International Business Review, 18(6), 606-616.
  • Kafouros M.I., Wang C. & Lodorfos G. 2009. The Impact of R&D Strategy and Firm Size on the Returns to Innovation, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 8 (4), 550-556.

Selected publications 2008

  • Kafouros M.I. & Buckley P.J. 2008. Under what Conditions do Firms Benefit from the Research Efforts of other Organizations?, Research Policy, 37(2), 225-239.
  • Cornelissen J.P. & Kafouros M.I. 2008. The Emergent Organization: Primary and Complex Metaphors in Theorizing about Organizations, Organization Studies, 29(7), 957–978.
  • Kafouros M.I. 2008. Economic Returns to Industrial Research, Journal of Business Research, 61(8), 868-876.
  • Cornelissen J.P. & Kafouros M.I. 2008. Metaphors and Theory Building in Organization Theory: What Determines the Impact of a Metaphor on Theory?, British Journal of Management, 61(8), 868-876.
  • Kafouros M.I., Buckley P.J., Sharp J.A. & Wang C. 2008. The Role of Internationalization in Explaining Innovation Performance, Technovation, 28 (1-2), 63-74.
  • Kafouros M.I. & Wang C. 2008. The Time Lag between R&D Investments and their Effects on Performance, Industry and Innovation, 15(3), 233-151.
  • Wang C., Buckley P.J., Clegg. J.L. & Kafouros M.I. 2008. The Impact of Inward Foreign Direct Investment on the Nature and Intensity of Chinese Manufacturing Exports, Transnational Corporations, 16(2), 123-140.
  • Buckley, P.J., Clegg, L.J., Cross, A.R., Voss, H., Rhodes, M. & Zheng, P. 2008. Explaining China's outward FDI: An Institutional Perspective. In K. Sauvant (ed.) The Rise of Transnational Corporations from Emerging Markets: Threat or Opportunity?. Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, pp. 151-224.
  • Forsans, N. & Balasubramanyam, V.N. Outward FDI from India: The Case of the IT Industry” Asian Business and Management, accepted for publication
  • Forsans, N., Cross, A.R. & Horn, S.““Japanese FDI in India: The Case of the Automobile Industry” Asian Business & Management , accepted for publication
  • Forsans, N. & Rhodes, M. 2008. “The determinants of Outward FDI from India” Journal of Business Research.
  • Forsans, N. & Kafouros, M. 2008. “Profiting from the Innovation of Others” Technovations.
  • Buckley, P., Chapman, M., Clegg, J. & Gajewska-De Mattos, H., 2008. 'Doing business in developing and transitional countries: an empirical example of the dominant logic and its alternative', International Studies of Management and Organisation, focused issue From Dilemma to Theory to Research Agenda: Doing Business in Developing and Transitional Countries.
  • Buckley, P.J., Cross, A.R., Tan, H., Liu, X. & Voss, H. 2008. 'Historic and Emergent Trends in Chinese Outward Direct Investment', Management International Review 48(6): 715-748.
  • Chapman, M., Gajewska-De Mattos, H., Clegg, J. & Buckley, P., 2008. "Close Neighbours and Distant Friends - Perceptions of Cultural Distance", International Business Review, volume 17(3)
PhD study environment at CIBUL

CIBUL is a major training ground for exceptionally qualified and strongly motivated new researchers. We foster a supportive research culture and offer key resources to ensure you successfully develop research projects that are both scholarly and practically valuable.

Central to doctoral training in CIBUL are strong methodological skills and developing cutting-edge research in collaboration with faculty members.

The research areas of our current PhD students include:

  • International entrepreneurship
  • Global value chain
  • Knowledge management
  • Cross-border M&As
  • Patent litigation
  • Succession process in family multinationals.

Their commitment to excellence adds to the vibrancy of our research environment and make significant contributions to published research.

Our doctoral students have won a number of major international prizes, including the Gunnar Hedlund Prize. Most recently, one of our PhD students was awarded the Michael Z. Brooke Prize for the best doctoral paper at the 2017 Academy of International Business (UK&I) conference. 

PhD and Research Degree Programmes at Leeds University Business School