Entry Requirements - International Qualifications

Below are the country-specific qualifications that we will consider for entry to our undergraduate courses starting in 2017. This information is intended as a guide, and while every effort is made to keep this information up-to-date and accurate, changes may occur.

If your qualification or country does not appear on this page or on our entry requirements page, please contact us at ugenq@lubs.leeds.ac.uk.

Where qualifications listed below are noted as being acceptable in place of GCSE Maths at grade A, B or C we will accept the stated grades as meeting the relevant Maths requirement. For details of which of our courses fall under the GCSE Maths grade A, B and C categories, please see our entry requirements page. Our Business Analytics programme requires an A-level Maths at grade B, or equivalent qualification, and a number of acceptable equivalencies are listed separately below.

Please note: to be considered for entry to Leeds University Business School, applicants should have successfully completed High School and obtained their High School Leaving Certificate.

Australia

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Senior Secondary School Leaving Certificate of all the Australian Territories is acceptable for entry onto our programmes. Students must take a minimum of 5 subjects, obtaining a minimum of 80 (or grade A) in 5 subjects, to include English and Maths. Students are expected to attain an ATAR of 92 to meet our requirements (except Queensland where an OP band of 1-4 is required).

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

The Senior Secondary School Leaving Certificate of all the Australian Territories is acceptable for entry onto our programmes. Students must take a minimum of 5 subjects, obtaining a minimum of 80 (or grade A) in 4 subjects, to include English and Maths and a grade B in 1 subject. Students are expected to attain an ATAR of 90 to meet our requirements (except Queensland where an OP band of 1-4 is required).

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: you must also have achieved 85% in Mathematics in the Senior Secondary School Leaving Certificate for entry.

Austria

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Reifeprufung / Matura is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Grades of 1, 1, 2, 2 including Maths and English are required. If English is not met in the Reifeprufung / Matura a separate English language qualification will be required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: A Grade of 1 in Mathematics.

Azerbaijan

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Certificate of Complete Secondary Education is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 4 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 5 for Grade A.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Bahrain

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Tawjahiya (Secondary School Leaving Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 80% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 90% for Grade A.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-Level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Bangladesh

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: 

The HSC (Higher Secondary Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A GPA of 4.0 (or 70% / A) is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and GPA 5.0 (or 80% / A+) for Grade A.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-Levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-Level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Belgium

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

Belgium High School Leaving qualifications are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 80% / 16 is required with a minimum of 70% / 14 in Maths and 70% / 14 in English. If English is not met in the High School leaving qualification a separate English Language qualification will be required. If English is not met in the High School leaving qualification a separate English Language qualification will be required. 

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

Belgium High School Leaving qualifications are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 75% / 15 is required with a minimum of 70% / 14 in Maths and 70% / 14 in English. If English is not met in the High School leaving qualification a separate English language qualification will be required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 80% / 16 in Belgium High School Leaving qualification Maths.

Brazil

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Certificado de Ensino Medio is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 8 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 9 for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-Levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-Level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Brunei

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Brunei-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level (GCE O) is acceptable in place of GCSE English Language and Maths.

A grade of 4 (B) is required for GCSE Grade B/C and 2 (A) for Grade A. The Brunei-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A) is acceptable in place of A-levels on a grade for grade basis.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: B in Mathematics in the Brunei-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A).

Bulgaria

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Diploma Za Zavarsheno Sredno Obrazovanie (The Diploma of Completed Secondary Education) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Applicants must obtain an overall grade of 5.6, with a minimum of 5 in Maths (4.7 in Maths for programmes requiring a GCSE Grade B/C). A separate English language qualification is required.

We do not consider the Diploma Za Sredno Spetxialno Obrazovanie.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

For degrees requiring AAB at A level: The Diploma Za Zavarsheno Sredno Obrazovanie (The Diploma of Completed Secondary Education) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Applicants must obtain an overall grade of 5.4, with a minimum of 4.7 in Maths. A separate English language qualification is required.

We do not consider the Diploma Za Sredno Spetxialno Obrazovanie.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 5.4 in Mathematics in the Diploma Za Zavarsheno Sredno Obrazovanie.

Cameroon

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

English system: The Cameroon GCE Ordinary Level is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths and English on a grade for grade basis. The Cameroon GCE Advanced Level is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes on a grade for grade basis.

French system: The Baccalauréat is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 16 (très bien) is required with an overall grade of 14 (bien) in Maths in the final year. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics

English system: B in Mathematics in the Cameroon GCE Advanced Level.

French system: A grade of 16 (très bien) in Maths in the Baccalauréat. 

Canada

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: 

The Secondary School Diploma of all provinces/territories (excluding Quebec, where the DEC is required) are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes.

Ontario: An overall average of 80% in 6 grade 12 University or University/College preparation modules is required, including a minimum of 75% in Maths (Calculus) and English Language.

Quebec: An overall average of 80% in 5 DEC (Diplôme d’Études Collégiales) subjects is required, including a minimum of 75% in Maths (Calculus) and English Language.

All other provinces/territories: An overall average of 80% in 5 grade 12 subjects is required, including a minimum of 75% in Maths (Calculus) and English Language.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 85% in Maths (Calculus). British Colombia: 85% in Pre-Calculus. Foundation Maths is not acceptable. Contact ugenq@lubs.leeds.ac.uk for eligibility of any other Maths module.

Caribbean

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Caribbean Examinations Council, Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths and English (at general or technical proficiency level). A grade of 2 is required for GCSE Grade B/C and a 1 for Grade A. The Bahamas General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) and the Bermuda Secondary School Certificate (BSSC) are both acceptable in place of GCSE Maths and English on a grade for grade basis. The Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) is acceptable in place of A-levels (at the two unit level). Grades of 1,1,1 will be required.

Candidates offering either CSEC, BGCSE or BSSC without CAPE will be required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds International Foundation Year or A-levels.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

For degrees requiring AAB at A Level: The Caribbean Examinations Council, Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths and English (at general or technical proficiency level). A grade of 2 is required for GCSE Grade B/C.The Bahamas General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) and  the Bermuda Secondary School Certificate (BSSC) are both acceptable in place of GCSE Maths and English on a grade for grade basis. The Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) is acceptable in place of A Levels (at the two unit level). Grades of 1,1,2 will be required.

Candidates offering either CSEC, BGCSE or BSSC without CAPE will be required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds International Foundation Year or A-levels.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Grade 2 in Mathematics in the Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) at the two unit level

China

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

Applicants from China must have completed a minimum of 2 years in the Huikao (Senior Secondary School Examination). For applicants who have completed 3 years in the Huikao we will accept Maths from the final year in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 80% is required for GCSE Grade B/C and 90% for Grade A. Any student not meeting this requirement would be expected to meet our GCSE Maths requirement through an additional qualification.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Alternative Routes:

NCUK offers an International Foundation Year at a number of locations in China. Students who have obtained the required grades from this programme will be considered for admission to all Business School programmes. NCUK also offer a 2+2 route at a number of locations including the Sino British College (SBC) in Shanghai.

Students who have obtained the required grades from this programme will be considered for admission directly onto the second year of a selection of Business School programmes. Please contact NCUK@leeds.ac.uk for further information.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business AnalyticsCandidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto BSc Business Analytics. 

Cyprus

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Cypriot Apolytirion is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall of 19 is required including 19 in Maths and 18 in English or 18.5 overall including 19 in Maths and 18 in English, along with a grade A at A Level (excluding General Studies and Critical Thinking).

Please note: If you have achieved the required GCSE Grade in Maths for your chosen programme (or a minimum of a Grade C in AS Level Maths) we will accept this in place of a 19 in the Apolytirion. We are unable to accept A Level Accounting in lieu of the Maths requirements stated above.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 18.5 overall and grade B in A-level Mathematics.

Czech Republic

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Vysvedcení o Maturitní Zkoušce (Maturita - Secondary School Leaving Certificate) is acceptable as A-Level equivalent. Applicants offering an overall grade of 2 in the Matura, with no less than 2 in Maths will be considered for our degree programmes. A separate English language qualification will be required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Grade of 1 in Mathematics in the Vysvedcení o Maturitní Zkoušce (Maturita - Secondary School Leaving Certificate).

Estonia

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Gumnaasiumi Ioputunnistus with the Riigieksamitunnistus (Secondary School Leaving Certificate with the State Examination Certificate) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 4.5 is required, to include 85% overall average across 3 State Exams, with a minimum of 75% in State Exam Maths. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 80% in Mathematics State Exam is required for entry onto this programme.

Finland

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Ylioppilastutkinto (Matriculation Examination Certificate) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Grades of 6, 6, 6, 5 are required, to include Maths (at Basic or Advanced level). A separate English Language qualification is required. A separate English language qualification is required.

For degrees requiring AAB at A level:

The Ylioppilastutkinto (Matriculation Examination Certificate) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Grades of 6, 6, 5, 5 are required, to include Maths at (Basic or Advanced level). A separate English Language qualification is required. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 5 in Mathematics (Advanced level) within Matriculation Examination Certificate.

France

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Baccalaureate General and the Option Internationale du Baccalaureate (OIB) are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 15 (Arts stream) or 14 (Science stream and Economic & Social stream) is required with a minimum of 13 in Maths (12 in Maths for programmes requiring a GCSE Grade B/C) and 12 in English. We do not consider the Diplôme du Baccalauréat Technologique or the Diplôme du Baccalauréat Professionnel.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

The Baccalaureate General and the Option Internationale du Baccalaureate (OIB) are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes An overall grade of 14 (Arts stream) or 13 (Science stream and Economic & Social stream) is required with a minimum of 12 in Maths and 12 in English. We do not consider the Diplôme du Baccalauréat Technologique or the Diplôme du Baccalauréat Professionnel.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 14 in Mathematics in the Baccalaureate General or Baccalaureate with Internationale Option (OIB).

Germany

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Abitur is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall average of 1.5 is required, with a minimum of 10 in Maths for programmes requiring GCSE Grade A (or 1 in Realschulabschluss Maths) and a minimum of 9 in Maths for programmes requiring GCSE Grade B/C (or 2 in Realschulabschluss Maths), plus 12 in English.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: At least 12 in Mathematics in the Abitur is required for entry onto the programme.

Ghana

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of B3 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and B2 for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels.  A separate English language qualification will be required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto this programme.

Greece

For degrees requiring AAA at A level:

The Greek Apolytirion of Geniko Lykeio with Pan-Hellenic National Level Examinations is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Applicants must obtain 19 overall, with a minimum of 19 in Maths (18 for GCSE Grade B/C) and 18 in Pan-Hellenic English Language examination.

For degrees requiring AAB at A level:

The Greek Apolytirion of Geniko Lykeio with Pan-Hellenic National Level Examinations is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Applicants must obtain 18 overall, with a minimum of 18 in Maths and 18 in Pan-Hellenic English Language examination.  

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 19 in Mathematics / Statistics in the Pan-Hellenic National Level Examinations.

Hong Kong

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level: 

The Hong Kong Certificate of Education (HKCEE) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths on a grade for grade basis.

The Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Candidates must pass 6 subjects with 3 subjects at Grade 5 and no grade lower than 3. This must include a minimum of 4 in Core Maths and Core English.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level: 

The Hong Kong Certificate of Education (HKCEE) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths on a grade for grade basis.

The Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Candidates must pass 6 subjects with 3 subjects at Grade 5,5,4 and no grade lower than 3. This must include a minimum of 4 in Core Maths and Core English.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 5 in HKDSE Core Maths.

Hungary

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

For degrees requiring AAA at A level: The Erettsegi is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall average of 80% is required to include 2 subjects in the Higher Maturity Level. 80% in Intermediate Level Maths is required for GCSE Grade A (70% in Maths for programmes requiring GCSE Grade B/C). A separate English language qualification is required.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

For degrees requiring AAB at A level: The Erettsegi is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall average of 75% is required to include 2 subjects in the Higher Maturity Level and 70% in Intermediate Level Maths. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 75% in Higher Level Mathematics in the Erettsegi.

India

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Indian Standard XII qualification will be considered for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 85% (taken from all subjects) is required, with a minimum of 70% in English and Maths.

For applicants applying for degree programmes requiring GCSE Grades B / C in Maths we will accept Maths from the Indian Standard X qualification with a minimum of 70%.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

The Indian Standard XII qualification will be considered for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 80% (taken from all subjects) is required, with a minimum of 70% in English. A minimum of 70% in Maths is required in either the Standard X or Standard XII qualification.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 80% in Mathematics in the Standard XII qualification.

Indonesia

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Surat Tanda Tamat Belajar Sekolah Menengah Umum Tingkat Atas (STTB - SMA - Certificate of Completion of Academic Secondary School) is acceptable in lieu of GCSE Maths. A grade of 9 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 10 for grade A.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto this programme.

Iran

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Diplom-Motevaseteh (National High School Diploma) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 60% (12/20) is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 70% (14/20) for Grade A.

The Pre-University Certificate and/or National Entrance Examination (Kunkur) are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes:

  • Pre-University Certificate: this must be in a related subject with an overall grade of 85% (17/20)
  • Kunkur: an overall grade of 85% (17/20) is required. 

A separate English Language qualification is required.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

The Diplom-Motevaseteh (National High School Diploma) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 60% (12/20) is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 70% (14/20) for Grade A.

The Pre-University Certificate and/or National Entrance Examination (Kunkur) are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes:

  • Pre-University Certificate: this must be in a related subject with an overall grade of 80% (16/20).
  • Kunkur: an overall grade of 80% (16/20) is required.

A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 85% (17/20) in the Pre-University Certificate or National Entrance Examination (Kunkur).

Ireland

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

Applicants must obtain 6 H2 grades in the Irish Leaving Certificate (Higher Level). Maths and English Language will be accepted at Ordinary level in lieu of GCSEs. A grade of O2 is required for GCSE A, and a grade of O3 is required for GCSE B/C.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

Applicants must obtain 4 H2 grades and 2 H3 grades in the Irish Leaving Certificate (Higher Level). Maths and English Language will be accepted at Ordinary level in lieu of GCSEs. A grade of O2 is required for GCSE A, and a grade of O3 is required for GCSE B/C.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Mathematics and Applied Mathematics (Higher Level) required with grades of H2 and H3 in any combination.

Israel

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

An overall grade of 85% in the Israeli Matriculation Certificate (Bagrut) with a minimum of 6 subjects, including 3 subjects at Level 5, and 85% in Maths at Level 4 (80% in Maths at Level 4 for programmes requiring GCSE grade B/C). A separate English Language qualification is required.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

An overall grade of 80% in the Israeli Matriculation Certificate (Bagrut) with a minimum of 6 subjects, including 3 subjects at Level 5, and 80% in Maths at Level 4. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: One of the three Level 5 subjects must be Mathematics, with a grade of 80%.

Italy

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Diploma Esame di Stato from Liceo is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 90% is required to include a minimum of 80% in Maths (70% in Maths for programmes requiring GCSE Grade B/C). A separate English Language qualification is required.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

The Diploma Esame di Stato from Liceo is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 85% is required to include a minimum of 70% in Maths. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 85% in Mathematics in the Diploma Esame di Stato, accepted only from the written exam.

Japan

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: 

The Kotogakko Sotsugyo Shomeisho (Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of B (4) is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and A (5) for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-Level equivalent Maths qualification for entry on to this programme.

Jordan

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Tawjihi (General Secondary Education Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 80% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 90% for Grade A.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto this programme.

Kazakhstan

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Attestat or Svidetel' Stvo o Srednem Obrazovanii (Cerificate of Completed Secondary Education) is acceptable if taken at grade 11 in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 4 is required for GCSE Grade B/C and 5 for Grade A.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto this programme.

Kenya

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths and English on a grade for grade basis. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Kuwait

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Shahadat-al-thanawia-al-a’ama (General Secondary School Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 80% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 90% for Grade A.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto this programme.

Latvia

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Atestats Par Visparejo Videjo Izglitib is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall of 8.5 is required to include 80% in each of the three State Exams, one of which must be Maths. If the programme to which you are applying requires grade B/C in GCSE Maths then 80% will be required in two state exams, plus 75% in state exam Maths. A separate English Language qualification is required.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

The Atestats Par Visparejo Videjo Izglitib is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall of 8 is required to include 75% in State Exam Maths and 80% in each of the two remaining State Exams. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 85% in Mathematics state exam.

Lebanon

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Baccalaureat is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 15 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 17 for Grade A.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto this programme.

Lithuania

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Brandos Atestatas (Maturity Certificate) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 9 out of 10 is required, with a minimum of 85% in three state exams, one of which must be Maths. If the programme to which you are applying requires grade B/C in GCSE Maths then 85% will be required in two state exams, plus 75% in state exam Maths. A separate English Language qualification is required.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level: For degrees requiring AAB at A level:

The Brandos Atestatas (Maturity Certificate) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 8.5 out of 10 is required, with a minimum of 80% in two state exams, plus 75% in state exam Maths. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 8 in Mathematics, and 80% in the Maths state exam.

Luxembourg

For degree requiring AAA at A-level:

The Luxembourg Diploma de Fin d'Etudes Secondaires is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall score of 48 is required, including a minimum of 40 in Maths and 40 in English.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level: 

The Luxembourg Diploma de Fin d'Etudes Secondaires is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall score of 46 is required, including a minimum of 40 in Maths and 40 in English.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: We require 48 in Maths in the Luxembourg Diploma de Fin d'Etudes Secondaires for entry onto this programme.

Malawi

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Malawi School Certificate of Education (MSCE) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths and English. A grade of 3 is required for GCSE Grade B/C and 2 for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Malaysia

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM Certificate of Education) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of B is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and an A- for Grade A. We will only consider the SPM 1119 in English as the English Language equivalent with a grade of B.

The Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM Malaysia Higher School Certificate) is acceptable in place of A-levels on a grade for grade basis. The Unified Examination Certificate (UEC) is not acceptable for entry.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: B in STPM Mathematics.

Mexico

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Bachillerato General is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 8.0 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 9.0 for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-Level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto this programme.

Morocco

For degrees that require AAA or AAB at A-level: The Diplome du Baccalaureat is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 16 is required in Maths for GCSE grade A and a grade of 14 for GCSE Grade B/C. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-Levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto this programme.

Netherlands

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: 

The Diploma Hoger Algemeen Voortgezet Onderwijs (HAVO - Senior General Secondary Education) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 7 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 8 for Grade A.

The Diploma Voorbereidend Wetenschappelijk Onderwijs (VWO - University Preparatory Education) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 8 is required with a grade of 7 in English Language.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: A Grade of 7 in Maths in the VWO.

New Zealand

For degrees that require AAA or AAB at A-level:

Applicants offering the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) Level 3 will be considered with a minimum of 80 credits, 60 credits to be at Level 3 with an overall endorsement of 'Excellence'. Students should offer at least 12 credits of Maths Level 2 at Excellence for programmes requiring GCSE Maths grade A, or at Merit for programmes requiring GCSE Maths grade B/C. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: At least 14 credits of NCEA Level 3 Maths at Excellence.

Nigeria

For degrees that require AAA or AAB at A level:

The West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A Grade of B3 is required for GCSE Grade B/C and a B2 for Grade A.

For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels.

If you are not taking the SSSCE / WASSCE English Language qualification, we will also require A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-Level equivalent Maths qualification for entry onto BSc Business Analytics.  

Norway

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: 

The Vitnemål fra Grunnskolen (Leaving Certificate from Lower Secondary School) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 6 is required in Maths for GCSE A, and grade 5 for GCSE B/C. The Vitnemal Videregaende Opplaering (Upper Secondary Leaving Certificate) is acceptable for entry with a grade of 4.5 overall, with 4 in English Language. The certificate must be endorsed ‘generell studieskompetanse’.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 4 in Maths in the Vitnemal Videregaende Opplaering (Upper Secondary Leaving Certificate).

Oman

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Thanawiya Amma (Secondary School Leaving Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 80% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 90% for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Pakistan

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The HSSC (Intermediate / Higher Secondary School Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 70% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 80% for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Poland

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level: The Matura (Secondary School Certificate) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. We require an overall average of 80% from the written elements of the Matura which should include at least 3 Extended / Advanced Level subjects. A minimum of 90% is required in Basic Level Maths for GCSE Grade A, 85% for GCSE Grade B/C. A minimum of 80% is required in Basic Level English (or alternatively we will accept 70% in Extended / Advanced Level English).

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level: The Matura (Secondary School Certificate) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. We require an overall average of 75% from the written elements of the Matura which should include at least 3 Extended / Advanced Level subjects. A minimum of 90% is required in Basic Level Maths for GCSE Grade A, 80% for GCSE Grade B/C. A minimum of 80% is required in Basic Level English (or alternatively we will accept 70% in Extended / Advanced Level English).

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: 80% in Extended / Advanced Level Maths in the Matura.

Portugal

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level: The Diploma de Ensino Secundario (awarded after successful completion of grade 12) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall Grade of 18.5 is required with a minimum of 16 in Maths and 15 in English (15 in Maths for programmes requiring GCSE Grade B/C).

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level: The Diploma de Ensino Secundario (awarded after successful completion of grade 12) is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall Grade of 18 is required with a minimum of 15 in Maths and 15 in English.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: A Grade of 18 in Mathematics.

Qatar

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Qatar Senior Schooling Certificate is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 75% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 88% for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Romania

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level: The Diploma De Baccalaureate is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 9 is required with a minimum of 8 in Maths (7 in Maths for programmes requiring GCSE Grade B/C). The Humanities stream is not acceptable for entry unless a separate acceptable Maths qualification is offered. A separate English Language qualification is required.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level: The Diploma De Baccalaureate is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 8.7 is required with a minimum of 7 in Maths. The Humanities stream is not acceptable for entry unless a separate acceptable Maths qualification is offered. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: A Grade of 9 in Mathematics.

Russia

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Attestat o (Polnom) Srednem Obshchem Obrazovanii (Certificate of Secondary Education) is acceptable if taken at grade 11 in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 4 is required for GCSE Grade B/C and a 5 for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Saudi Arabia

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Tawjihiyah (General Secondary Education Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 75% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 90% for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Scotland

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level: Scottish Highers and Scottish Advanced Highers are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes in the following combinations: six Highers at AAAAAA (taken across Levels 5 and 6), or one Advanced Higher at A with five Highers at AAABB, or two Advanced Highers at AA with five Highers AABBB. We will also accept three Advanced Highers at AAA. Intermediate 2 / National 5 Maths and English are acceptable in lieu of GCSE requirements on a grade for grade basis.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level: Scottish Highers and Scottish Advanced Highers are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes in the following combinations: six Highers at AAAABB (taken across Levels 5 and 6), or one Advanced Higher at A with five Highers at AABBB, or two Advanced Highers at AB with five Highers AABBB. We will also accept three Advanced Highers at AAB. Intermediate 2 / National 5 Maths and English are acceptable in lieu of GCSE requirements on a grade for grade basis.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Mathematics grade B at Advanced Higher.

Sierra Leone

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 3 or B3 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and a 2 or B2 for Grade A.  For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-Levels. A separate English Language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Singapore

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: Singapore O-Levels are acceptable in place of GCSE Maths and English. A grade of B4 is required for GCSE grade B/C and grade A2 for GCSE grade A. Singapore A-Levels at H2 Level are acceptable on a grade for grade basis in lieu of A-Levels. Business-related Singapore Polytechnic Diplomas will be considered for first year entry (only). A GPA of 3.0 will be required. The relevant English Language and Maths requirements will need to be met through Singapore O-Levels or other acceptable equivalencies.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Maths grade B in Singapore A-level (H2 Level).

South Africa

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The South African National Senior Certificate (NSC) at Grade 12 is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. Applicants must obtain a 77766 (or AAABB), with a minimum of 5 in English Language. A Maths grade of 5 is required for GCSE grade B/C and 6 for GCSE grade A.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Maths grade 7 in NSC.

South Korea

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Ilbankye Kodung Hakkyo (General High School Diploma) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of C (mi 70-79%) is required for GCSE Grade B/C and a B (woo 80%+) for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English Language qualification is required

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Spain

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

The Título de Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 8 is required for GCSE Grade B/C and 9 for Grade A. The Titulo de Bachiller is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 8.5 is required with a minimum grade of 7 in Mathematics (unless Maths requirement met through ESO) and 7 in English.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

The Título de Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 8 is required for GCSE Grade B/C. The Titulo de Bachiller is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 8 is required with a minimum grade of 7 in Mathematics (unless Maths requirement met through ESO) and 7 in English.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: A grade of 8 in Mathematics.

Sri Lanka

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Sri Lanka Ordinary Level is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A B (65%+) is required for GCSE Grade B/C and A (75%+) for Grade A. The Sri Lanka Advanced Level is acceptable in place of A-levels on a grade for grade basis. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: B in Mathematics in the Sri Lanka Advanced Level.

Sweden

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Slutbetyg fran Grundskola is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths on a grade for grade basis. The Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate is acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes (excluding vocational routes). An overall average of 18 is required (a minimum of 2500 credits must be completed). A minimum of a grade B must be achieved in Maths 1 and 2 and English Language.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Grade B in Fullstandigt Slutbetyg fran Gymnasieskolan Maths 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Switzerland

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Certificat de Maturité / Certificat de Maturité Cantonal reconnu par la Confédération, Maturitätsausweis / Eidgenössisch anerkanntes kantonales Maturitätszeugnis, or Attestato di Maturità / Attestato di Maturità Cantonale riconosciuto dalla Confederazione are acceptable for entry onto our degree programmes. An overall grade of 5 out of 6 is required, including 5 out of 6 in Maths and English. (The Professional Maturity Certificate will not be considered for entry to our programmes).

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Maths grade 6 (out of 6) in one of the qualifications listed above.

Syria

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Al Shahada Al Thanawiya / Baccalaureat (Secondary School Leaving Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 80% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 90% for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry

Taiwan

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Senior High School Diploma is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 80% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 90% for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entr

Thailand

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Certificate of Secondary Education (Maw 6) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 3 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 4 for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Turkey

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

High School Diplomas (excluding Technical/Vocational Diplomas) are acceptable for entry from approved schools. An overall grade of 85% is required, including a grade of 4 (70%) in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and a 5 (85%) for Grade A. A separate English language qualification is required.

Students from all other high schools will be required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

For degrees requiring AAB at A level:

High School Diplomas (excluding Technical/Vocational Diplomas) are acceptable for entry from approved schools. An overall grade of 80% is required, including a grade of 4 (70%) in Maths. A separate English language qualification is required.

Students from all other high schools will be required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

UAE

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Tawjihiyya (Secondary School Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 80% is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 90% for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Uganda

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level:

The Uganda Certificate of Education (UCE) is acceptable in place of GCSEs. A grade of 2 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and a 1 for Grade A. The Uganda Advanced Certificate of Education (UACE) is acceptable at Principal Level in place of A Levels on a grade for grade basis.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: B in Mathematics in the Uganda Advanced Certificate of Education (UACE).

Ukraine

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Atestat pro Povnu Zag'nu Sersdniu Osvitu (Certificate of Complete General Secondary Education) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 9 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 10 for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

USA

For degrees requiring AAA at A-level:

Applicants must offer a combination of: SAT I or SATR with a minimum of 650 in each of the 3 components (or, under the new SATR system, 700 in Evidence-Based Reading and Writing, and 670 in Maths) or an ACT overall score of 29 with a minimum of 28in Maths and English/Writing. This will meet our minimum Maths and English Language requirements. Also either: 3 full group A Advanced Placement Tests (Physics is two half courses) with grades of 5,5,5 or 3 SAT II’s/SATS with minimum scores of 650 in each component.

For degrees requiring AAB at A-level:

Applicants must offer a combination of: SAT I or SATR with a minimum of 650 in each of the 3 components (or, under the new SATR system, 700 in Evidence-Based Reading and Writing, and 670 in Maths), or an ACT overall score of 28, with a minimum of 28 in Maths and English/Writing. This will meet our Minimum Maths and English Language requirements. Also either: 3 full group A Advanced Placement Tests (Physics is two half courses) with grades of 5,5,4 or 2 SAT II’s/SATS with minimum scores of 650 in each component and 1 SAT II/SATS with a minimum score of 600.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Grade 4 in Calculus BC Advanced Placement Test. SATI/SATR Maths not acceptable for entry to this programme.

Vietnam

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Tot Nghiep Pho Thong Trung Hoc (Upper Secondary School Graduation Certificate) is acceptable in place of GCSE Maths. A grade of 7.0 is required in Maths for GCSE Grade B/C and 9.0 for Grade A. For entry onto our degree programmes applicants are required to take a Foundation Year programme such as the Leeds Foundation Year or A-levels. A separate English language qualification is required.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: Candidates who are completing a Foundation Year will be assessed at the point of application whether they meet the A-level equivalent Maths qualification for entry.

Wales

Unfortunately, we do not consider the Welsh Baccalaureate for entry onto our programmes.

Zimbabwe

For degrees requiring AAA or AAB at A-level: The Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) is acceptable in place of GCSEs on a grade for grade basis. The Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education (ASCE) is acceptable in place of A-levels on a grade for grade basis.

Additional requirements:

BSc Business Analytics: B in Mathematics in the Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education (ASCE).