Emeritus Professor John Maule

Emeritus Professor in Human Decision Making, Management Division

Academic, Management, Centre for Decision Research (CDR), Staff, Research Centres, Divisions
Time pressure and decision making; the psychology of decision making


PhD in Cognitive Psychology, Dundee
BA (Hons) Psychology, Durham
Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society
Chartered Psychologist


2004 to date: Professor, Leeds University Business School
1991-2004: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Leeds University Business School.
1974-1990: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Principal Lecturer, University of Huddersfield
1969-1974: ESRC Research Assistant/Fellow University of Dundee


How individuals, groups and organisations make decisions, particularly in the face of risk, and how we can use this knowledge to help them make better decisions by improving their underlying thinking and reasoning and through the use of structured decision aids. Currently undertaking research on the following:

  • How people perceive and act in the face of risk and the implications these have for effective risk communication in such domains as finance, terrorism, health and food.
  • The effects of mood, emotion and time pressure on risk-taking behaviour and decision making.
  • How people build mental models/decision frames of strategic problems and the influence these have on risk attitudes and decision making.
  • Consumer decision making.
  • Medical Decision Making involving such issues as informed decision making in patients and the use of decision analysis techniques to aid clinical decision making.
  • The relevance of emerging behavioural economic research for financial, legal and other private and public sector organisations.

For more information visit the Centre for Decision Research (CDR) web site click here


Doctoral supervision

Specialist courses to managers and other professionals


Journal Articles 

Barker G.C., Bayley C., Cassidy A., French S., Hart A., Malakar P.K., Maule A. J., Petkov M., Shepherd R. (2010) Can a participatory approach contribute to food chain risk analysis? Risk Analysis, , 30, 766 - 781

Maule, A J (2010). Can computers overcome limitations in human decision making? International Journal of Human Computer Interaction. 26, 108 - 119

Cameron, L., Maslen, R., Todd, Z., Maule, J, Stratton, P. & Stanley, N. (2009). The Discourse Dynamics Approach to Metaphor and Metaphor-led Discourse Analysis Metaphor & Symbol, 24, 63 – 89.

Roca, M & Maule, A J (2009). Demand for probabilistic information and the effects of endowment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109, 56 – 66.

Raynor, D. K., Blenkinsopp, A., Knapp, P., Grime, J., Nicholson, D. Pollock, K., Dorer, G., Gilbody, S., Dickinson, D., Maule, A. J., & Spoor, P (2007). Systematic review of quantitative and qualitative research on the role and effectiveness of written information available to patients about individual medicines. HTA Monographs, 11, 5.

Maule, A J & Villejoubert, G (2007) What Lies Beneath: Reframing Framing effects. Thinking & Reasoning. 13, 25 – 44.

Bonsall, P.W.; Shires, J.D.; Maule J.; Matthews, B.; Beale J.R.(2007) Responses to Complex Pricing Signals: Theory, Evidence and Implications for Road Pricing. Transportation Research. Part A: Policy & Practice. 41, 672 - 683

Roca, M., Hogarth, R M, Maule, A J (2006). Ambiguity Seeking as a Result of the Status Quo Bias. Journal of Risk & Uncertainty, 32, 175 – 194.

Shepherd, R., Barker, G., French, S., Hart, A. Maule, A & Cassidy, A. (2006). Managing Food Chain Risks: Integrating Technical and Stakeholder Perspectives on Uncertainty. Journal of Agircultural Economics, 57, 313-327.

French, S., Maule, A. J. & and Mythen, (2005). G. Soft modeling in risk communication and management: examples in handling food risk. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 56, 879 – 888,

Carrigan, N, Gardner P. H., Conner, M. & Maule, A. J. (2004).The impact of structuring information in a patient decision aid. Psychology & Health, 19, 457 – 477.

Fuller, R., Dudley, N., Maule, J. & Stewart, T. (2004) Dilemmas in managing intracerebral haemorrhage and thromboembolism. Journal of Royal Society of Medicine, 97, 308.

Hodgkinson, G. P., Maule, A. J., Bown, N. J. (2004). Charting the mind of the strategic decision maker: A comparative analysis of two methodological alternatives involving causal mapping. Organizational Research Methods, 7, 3 – 21.

Maule, A. J. (2004). Translating risk management knowledge: The lessons to be learned from research on the perception and communication of risk. Risk Management: An International Journal, 6, 17 – 29.

Maule, A. J. and Hodgkinson, G. P. (2003). Re-appraising Managers’ Perceptual Errors: A Behavioural Decision Making Perspective. British Journal of Management, 14, 33 – 37.

Hodgkinson, G. P., Maule A. J., Bown, N., Pearman A. D. & Glaister, K. (2002). Further reflections on the limitation of framing bias in strategic decision making. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 1069 – 1076.

Maule, A. J. & Hodgkinson, G. P. (2002) Heuristics, biases and strategic decision making. The Psychologist, 15, 68-71.

Maule, A. J. (2001). Studying judgement: Some comments and suggestions for future research. Thinking & Reasoning. 7, 91-102.

Hockey, G. R. J., Maule A. J., Clough, P. & Bdzola, L. (2000) The effects of negative affect on personal risk-taking behaviour. Cognition & Emotion, 14, 823 – 855.

Maule, A. J., Hockey, G. R. J., & Bdzola L. (2000). Effects of time pressure on decision making under uncertainty: changes in affective state and information processing strategy. Acta Psychologica, 104, 283 – 301.

Aguilar-Manjarrez, R., Thwaites, D. & Maule, A. J. (1999). Insight into the roles adopted by the recipients of unsolicited sport sponsorship requests International Journal of Sport Sponsorship, 185 – 205.

Bennett P. G., French S., Maule A. J., Coles D. & McDonald, A. (1999). Improving risk communication: a programme of work in the Department of Health. Risk, Decision & Policy, 4, 47-56.

Hodgkinson, G. P., Bown, N. J., Maule, A. J., Glaister, K. W. & Pearman, A D. (1999). ‘Breaking the frame: An analysis of strategic cognition and decision making under uncertainty’. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 977-985.

Bekker, H., Thornton, J., Airey, M., Connelly, J., Hewison, J., Lilleyman, J, MacIntosh, M., Maule, A. J. , Michie, S., Pearman, A. D., Robinson, M. (1998). The Leeds Annotated Bibliography of Informed Decision Making; a systematic review. HTA Monographs,.3, 1.

Aguilar-Manjarrez, R., Thwaites, D. & Maule, A. J.(1997) ‘Modelling sport sponsorship decisions’. Asia-Australia Marketing Journal, 5. 9 – 20.

Maule A. J. & Hockey G. R. J. (1996). The effects of mood on risk-taking behaviour. The Psychologist, 464-467.

Maule A. J., Cliff D. R. & Taylor, R. (1996). Key factors in the decision to accept early retirement and the influences these have on the quality of life in retirement. Ageing and Society, 16, 177-204.

Hockey G. R. J. & Maule, A. J. (1995). Unscheduled manual interventions in automated process control. Ergonomics, 38, 2504 – 2524.

Maule A. J. (1995). Early retirement schemes: factors governing their success and how these differ across job categories. Personnel Review, 24, 4 – 21.

Maule, A J. (1985). The importance of an updating internal representation of the environment in the control of visual sampling. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37A, 533 – 551.

Maule, A. J. & Sanford A. J. (1980). Adult age differences in multi-source selection behaviour with partially predictable signals. British Journal of Psychology, 71, 69 – 81.

Sanford, A. J. , Maule, A. J. & Jack, E. (1977)An age related attenuation of selectivity of choice in a modified guessing task. Gerontology, 23, 205 – 210.

Sanford, A. J. & Maule, A. J. (1973).The concept of general experience: age and strategies in guessing future events. Journal of Gerontology, 28, 81-88.

Sanford, A. J. & Maule, A. J. (1973). The allocation of attention in multisource monitoring behaviour: Adult age differences. Perception, 2, 91-100.

Sanford, A. J. & Maule, A. J. (1971). Age and the distribution of observing responses. Psychonomic Science, 23, 419 – 420.

Books and Book Chapters 

Cassidy A. and Maule, A.J. (In Press) Risk communication and participatory research: using the visual domain to support group discussion of complex issues. In P. Reavey (Ed) Visual Psychologies: Using and interpreting images in qualitative research Routledge, London.

French, S. & Maule A. J. (2010). Exploring and Communicating Risk: Scenario-based Workshops. In. P. Bennett, K. Calman, S. Curtis and D. Smith (Eds) Risk communication and public health. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press.

French, S., Maule, A. J. & Papamichail N (2009) Decision behaviour, analysis and support. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Maule, A. J. (2008) Risk communication and organisations. In W Starbuck & G. P. Hodgkinson (Eds) The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Decision Making. Oxford University Press.

Maule, A. J., Hodgkinson, G. P. & Bown, N. J. (2003) Causal mental models in strategic decision making. In D. Hardman & L. Macchi (Eds.), The Psychology of Reasoning and Decision Making: A Handbook, pp 253 – 272. Chichester: Wiley.

Hodgkinson, G. P. & Maule, A. J. (2002). The individual in the strategy process: Insights from behavioural decision research and cognitive mapping. In A. S. Huff & M. Jenkins (Eds.), Mapping Strategic Knowledge, pp.196 – 219. London: Sage.

French, S. & Maule, A. J. (1999) A scenario based approach for improving risk communication. In P. Bennett & K. C. Calman (Eds.) Risk Communication and Public Health, pp 241 – 253. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bennett, P., Maule, A. J. & French, S. (1999). Improving risk communication: Development in the UK Department of Health. In L.H.J Goossens (Ed) Proceedings of Society for Risk Analysis (Europe). Rotterdam.

Maule, A. J. (1997) Strategies for adapting to time pressure. In R. Flin, E. Salas, M. Strub & L. Martin (Eds.), Decision Making under Stress: Emerging Themes and Applications, pp 271 – 293. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Maule A. J. & Edland, A. C. (1997). The effects of time pressure on judgement and decision making. In R. Ranyard, W. R. Crozier & O. Svenson (Eds.) Decision Making: Cognitive Models and Explanation, pp 189 – 204. London: Routledge.

Maule, A. J. (1995) Framing elaborations and their effects on choice behaviour: a comparison across problem isomorphs and subjects with different levels of expertise. In J-P. Caverni, M. Bar-Hillel, F. H. Barron & H. Jungermann (Eds) Contributions to decision research 1, pp 281 – 300. North Holland: Elsevier.

Maule, A. J. (1994). A componential investigation of the relation between structural modelling and cognitive accounts of human judgement. Acta Psychologica, 87, 199-216.

Maule, A. J. & Svenson O. (1993). Concluding remarks. In O. Svenson & A. J. Maule (Eds) Time pressure and stress in human judgement and decision making, pp 323 – 330. New York: Plenum Publishing.

Maule, A. J. & Svenson O. (1993). Theoretical and empirical approaches to behavioural decision making. In O. Svenson & A. J. Maule (Eds.), Time pressure and stress in human judgement and decision making, pp 3 – 25. New York: Plenum Publishing.

Maule, A. J. & Hockey G. R. J. (1993) State, stress and time pressure. In O Svenson & A J Maule (Eds.), Time pressure and stress in human judgement and decision making, pp 83 – 102. New York: Plenum Publishing.

Svenson, O. & Maule, A. J. (Eds). (1993) Time pressure and stress in human judgement and decision making. 335 pages. New York: Plenum Publishing.

Maule, A. J. & Mackie, P. A (1990). Componential investigation of the effects of deadlines on individual decision making. In K. Borcheding, D. Messick & O. Larichev (Eds.), Approaches to decision making & decision aiding, pp163 – 180. North Holland: Elsevier

Maule, A. J. (1989). Positive and negative decision frames: a protocol analysis of the Asian Disease Problem of Kahneman & Tversky. In O. Svenson & H. Montgomery (Eds.), Process & Structure in Human Decision Making, pp 281 – 300. Chichester: Wiley.

Maule, A. J. & Hockey, G. R. J. (1988) The role of unscheduled manual interventions in process control. Proceedings of the 8th. European Conference on Decision Making & Manual Control. pp110 – 121. Paris, EDF.

Maule, A. J. (1985) Cognitive approaches to decision making. In Wright G (Ed), Behavioral Decision Making, pp 61 – 84. New York: Plenum.


Maule, A. J., Stratton, P., Cameron, L., Todd, Z., Maslen, R., Sandberg, T. & Stanley, N. (2007) How UK Muslims and non-Muslims think about terrorist risk. Chatham House ISP/NSC Briefing Paper: Islam and Security. Chatham House: London.

Bonsall, P., Shires, J., Matthews, B., Maule, A. J. & Beale, J. (2004) Road user charging - pricing structures. London: UK Department of Transport & Industry.

OECD Nuclear Energy Agency.(2002) Society and nuclear energy: Towards a better understanding. Paris: OECD.

Maule, A. J., Read, D. Pearman, A. D. & Bown N. J. (2002). Computerised tools for group decision support. DERA.

Hodgkinson, G. P., Maule, A. J., Glaister, K. W., & Pearman, A. D. (1999). Navigating an uncertain world: strategic cognition and risk. ESRC Risk and Human Behaviour Newsletter, 5. 2- 6. Swindon: Economic and Social Research Council,.

Maule, A. J., Hockey, G. R. J., Bdzola, L. & Clough, P.(1998) The effects of emotion and other state changes on personal risk behaviour. ESRC Risk and Human Behaviour Newsletter, 4, 2 - 6.Swindon: Economic and Social Research Council.

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