Lilith Brouwers


Current research: Sex workers’ experiences of work relationships with third parties in the UK.

Despite increasing academic research into sex work as an issue of work and labour, the role of affiliated workers who make their income in the sex industry (third parties in roles such as management, security, sharing work space, renting out premises, etc.) has been consistently understudied. Due to the fact that these third party roles are currently criminalised, all employment relations in the full service sex industry in the UK are effectively illegal. This research will map the existing third party relationships in the UK sex industry, focusing on sex workers experiences of the impact third parties have on their working conditions. It will explore the way current legislation on third parties affects sex workers safety and how this may be improved. 

Recent publication:

Brouwers L, Herrmann T. “We Have Advised Sex Workers to Simply Choose Other Options”—The Response of Adult Service Websites to COVID-19. Social Sciences. 2020; 9(10):181. 


Leeds University Research Scholarship

Professional Memberships

HEA Associate Fellow

Extracurricular Activities

Divisional representative of postgraduate researchers of the Work and Employment Relations Division

Member of the Leeds University AREA Research Ethics Committee

Teaching Experience

Diversity Management – University of Leeds

Human Resource Management – University of Leeds

Economic Institutions – University of Leeds

Multidisciplinary research methods and academic writing – Utrecht University

Guest lecture, dissertation module – University of Leeds

Guest lecture, sex work for medical students – University College London

Guest lecture, psychology of intimate relationships – St. Mary’s University


  • MSc Gender Research - London School of Economics and Political Sciences, UK
  • BA Liberal Arts and Sciences - Utrecht University, the Netherlands

Research groups and institutes

  • Centre for Employment Relations, Innovation and Change