Wändi Bruine de Bruin

Wandi Bruine de Bruin

Professor with University Leadership Chair in Behavioural Decision Making
Co-director of the Centre for Decision Research
Subject Group Leader of Decision Research, Management Division
Deputy Director of the Priestley International Centre for Climate

Email:
w.bruinedebruin@leeds.ac.uk
Telephone:
+44 (0)113 343 8839
Location:
G48 Maurice Keyworth Building
Profile

Download Wändi’s CV

Qualifications

BSc Psychology, Free University Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

MSc Cognitive Psychology, Free University Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

MSc Behavioral Decision Theory, Carnegie Mellon University (US)

PhD Behavioral Decision Making and Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University (US)

Current Positions at the Leeds University Business School (UK)

University Leadership Chair in Behavioural Decision Making

Co-director of the Centre for Decision Research

Head of Decision Research Subject Group 

Additional Positions

Collaborating Professor, Dept. of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University (US)

Behavioral Scientist, Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California (US)

Adjunct Senior Researcher, RAND Corporation (US)

Deputy Director, Priestley International Centre on Climate, University of Leeds (UK)

Experience

Professor Wändi Bruine de Bruin holds a University Leadership Chair in Behavioural Decision Making at the Leeds University Business School, where she also serves as the co-director of the Centre for Decision Research. She also holds affiliations with Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Southern California, and the RAND Corporation. In 2015, she was a Visiting Research Scholar at the Dutch Central Bank.  

Wändi’s research aims to understand and inform how people make decisions about their finances, their health, and their environmental footprint.  Her research interests include judgement and decision making, risk perception and communication, behaviour change interventions, and age differences in decision-making competence.

Wändi is a member the editorial boards of the Journal of Experimental Psychology:Applied, the Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, Medical Decision Making, the Journal of Risk Research, and Psychology and Aging. She served as the co-editor of a special issue on decision-making competence for the Journal of Behavioral Decision Making (2012)  and for Frontiers in Psychology (2015) , as well as a special issue on risk communication for Current HIV Research (2015) . She is a member of the Scientific & Technical Committee of the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) , which provides evidence-based advice to international policy makers. She has been a member of an expert panel at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences on the science of science communication, and an expert panel on health product risk communication by the Council of the Canadian Academies. 

Examples of recent research projects include:

Age differences in decision making (EU Marie Curie CIG)

Public perceptions of climate change and extreme weather (ESRC)

Consumer decisions about food (ESRC) 

Financial distress in older adults  (EU Marie Curie IIF)

Science and proven experience (Swedish Riksbankens Jubileumsfond)

Research

Throughout their lives, people face many important decisions affecting their health, finances, and environmental impacts. The overall goal of my research is to use the theories and methods from behavioural decision research to understand and improve how people make decisions. Below, I will briefly discuss my research on (1) individual differences in decision-making competence across the life span, and (2) risk perception and developing effective communication; and (3) Consumer expectations of inflation and the economy. 

Individual differences in decision-making competence across the life span 

With initial funding from the US National Science Foundation, this project involved the development and validation of a comprehensive measure of Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC), which used well-known judgment and decision-making tasks (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). I have now received an EU Marie Curie Career Integration Grant to examine changes in decision-making competence across the adult lifespan. This research aims to understand the role of age-related changes in cognitive ability, motivation, and experience in decision making (e.g., Bruine de Bruin et al., 2012, 2014, 2015). We have also used our measure to evaluate educational interventions that aim to teach better decision-making competence (Jacobson et al., 2012). A-DMC provides a valid measure of to study individuals’ decision-making skills, the role of decision-making competence in specific decisions, group comparisons in decision-making competence of different groups, and, perhaps most importantly, to evaluate the effectiveness of decision-making classes. The A-DMC measure can be downloaded from http://www.sjdm.org/dmidi/Adult_-_Decision_Making_Competence.html.

Recent research projects on this topic include:

·        Age differences in decision-making competence (EU Marie Curie CIG)

·        Financial distress in older adults (EU Marie Curie IIF) 

Risk perception and effective communication

To make more informed decisions about their health, finances, and environmental impacts, people need to understand the risks and benefits of the available alternatives. Risk communications aim to provide that information. However, it is often difficult for experts to understand the informational needs of their audiences (Bruine de Bruin & Bostrom, 2013). This line of research aims to improve the design of risk communications by first conducting formative research with members of its intended audience, so as to better understand what they need and want to know. Topics include flooding and climate change (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2014), low-carbon energy generation technologies (Mayer et al., 2014), and smart meters (Krishnamurti et al., 2012).

Recent research projects on this topic include:

·        Public perceptions of climate change and extreme weather (ESRC)

·        Consumer decisions about food (ESRC)

Consumer expectations of inflation and the economy

Worldwide, governments, central banks, research and financial institutions are investing considerable resources to survey consumers about their inflation expectations. Policy makers use these consumer surveys to inform monetary policy decisions, because inflation expectations influence consumers’ savings, investments, purchases of durable goods and wage negotiations – which, in turn, affect economic activity and realised inflation. In the past, many central banks have relied on national consumer surveys that lack rigorous grounding in survey methodology or consumer decision making. Response distributions show large dispersion, suggesting confusion among respondents about how to answer. Such findings undermine the potential usefulness of consumer surveys for monetary policy decisions. In unique collaborative research with the US Federal Reserve and the Dutch Central Bank, our team tested strategies for improving central banks’ national consumer surveys. In a Dutch Central Bank working paper we demonstrated that changes in wording, response formats and administration mode affect the central tendency of responses as well as their dispersion. In a recent paper published in International Economic Review (2015), we also demonstrated that consumers’ responses inform their actual financial decisions – thus confirming the survey questions’ validity. Our research played a key role in the decision by the US Federal Reserve to launch a new monthly national US consumer survey, which is already being used to inform monetary policy decisions by US policy makers. The findings are publicly available to researchers and practitioners. Moreover, the Bank of Canada has also implemented a Canadian national survey based on our research, to inform the monetary policy decisions by Canadian policy makers. (Our expertise has been sought by other central banks, who may subsequently follow.)

Recent research on this topic includes:

·        Mode effect experiment 

Visit the Centre for Decision Research website for more information on research projects

Teaching

Professor Wändi Bruine de Bruin teaches Risk Perception and Communication (5202M) in Semester 2. In 2015, she received the Dean’s Award for Teaching Excellence for this module. 

This module aims to help future executives, policy makers, financial advisors, health professionals, and other practitioners to gain a critical understanding of how non-experts perceive risks, how non-experts’ risk perceptions vary and deviate from those of experts, as well as how to effectively communicate risk information to diverse audiences. The materials cover the main findings of the risk perception literature, and how to design our own interviews and surveys so as to learn more about how people perceive specific risks. The module also discusses how to design and evaluate our own communication materials so as to improve people’s risk perceptions and their associated decisions. Applications are focussed on the contexts of finance, behavioural economics, public health, sustainability, and climate change.

Responsibilities

Leeds University Business School (UK)

·       Professor with University Leadership Chair in Behavioural Decision Making

·       Co-director of the Centre for Decision Research 

·       Subject Group Leader of Decision Research, Management Division

·       Deputy Director of the Priestley International Centre for Climate

 

Other affiliations

·       Collaborating Professor, Dept. of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University (US)

·       Behavioral Scientist, Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California (US)

·       Adjunct Senior Researcher, RAND Corporation (US)

 

Other professional roles

·       Editorial board, Psychology & Aging

·       Editorial board, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making

·       Editorial board, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied

·       Editorial board, Journal of Risk Research

·       Editorial board, Medical Decision Making

·       Scientific and Technical Council, International Risk Governance Council

·       U.S. National Academy of Sciences expert consensus panel on “The Science of Science Communication”

·       Communications committee, Psychonomic Society

·       Beattie award committee (chair), Society for Judgment and Decision Making

Publications

Peer-reviewed publications (total=76)

Wändi’s publications can be downloaded from ResearchGate, or requested via email.

1.      Bruine de Bruin, W., Lefevre, C.E., Taylor, A.L., Dessai, S., Fischhoff, B., & Kovats, S. (in press).  Promoting protection against a threat that evokes positive affect: The case of heatwaves in the U.K. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.

2.      Bruine de Bruin, W., Dombrovski, A.Y., Parker, A.M., Szanto, K. (in press). Late life depression, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide: The role of individual differences in maximizing, regret, and negative decision outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

3.      Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A.M., & Strough, J. (in press). Choosing to be happy? Age differences in ‘maximizing’ decision strategies and experienced emotional well-being. Psychology and Aging.

4.      Canfield, C., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Wong-Parodi, G. (in press).  Perceptions of electricity-use communications: effects of information, format, and individual differences. Journal of Risk Research.

5.      Chin, A., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (in press).  Understanding the formation of consumers’ stock market expectations. Journal of Consumer Affairs.

6.      Del Missier, F., Hansson, P., Parker, A.M., Bruine de Bruin, W., Nilsson, L.G., & Mäntylä, T (in press). Unraveling the aging skein: Disentangling the effects of sensory and cognitive predictors on decision making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

7.      Strough, J., Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A.M., Lemaster, P., Pichayayothin, N., & Delaney, R. (in press).  Hour glass half-full or half-empty? Future time perspective and preoccupation with negative events across the life span. Psychology and Aging.

8.      Armantier, O., Bruine de Bruin, W., Topa, G., van der Klaauw, W., Zafar, B. (2015).  Inflation expectations and behavior: Do survey respondents act on their beliefs?  International Economic Review, 56, 505-536.

9.      Bruine de Bruin, W., McNair, S., Taylor, A.L., Summers, B., & Strough, J. (2015). 'Thinking about numbers is not my idea of fun': Need for cognition mediates age differences in numeracy performance. Medical Decision Making. 35, 22-26.

10.   Delaney, R., Strough, J., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Parker, A. (2015). Variations in decision-making profiles by age and gender: A cluster-analytic approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 19-24.

11.   Downs, J.S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., & Murray, P.J. (2015). Behavioral decision research intervention reduces risky sexual behavior. Current HIV Research, 13, 439-446.

12.   Khare, S., Hajat, S., Kovats, S., Lefevre, C., Bruine de Bruin, W., Dessai, S., & Bone, A. (2015). Heat protection behaviour in the UK: results of an online survey after the 2013 heatwave. BMC Public Health, 15, 1-12.

13.   Lefevre, C.E., Bruine de Bruin, W., Taylor, A.L., Dessai, S., Kovats, S., & Fischhoff, B. (2015). Heat protection behaviors and positive affect about heat during the 2013 heat wave in the United Kingdom. Social Science & Medicine, 128, 282-289.

14.   Parker, A.M., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Fischhoff, B. (2015). Negative decision outcomes are more common among people with lower decision-making competence: An item-level analysis of the Decision Outcome Inventory (DOI). Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-7.

15.   Schwartz, D., Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., & Lave, L. (2015). Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 21, 158-166.

16.   Strough, J., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Peters, E. (2015). New perspectives on motivating better decisions in older adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-10.

17.   Szanto, K., Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A.M., Hallquist, M.N., Vanyukov, P.M., & Dombrovski, A.Y. (2015). Decision-making competence and attempted suicide. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 76, 1590-1597.

18.   Taylor, A.L., Dessai, S., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (2015). Communicating uncertainty in seasonal and interannual climate forecasts in Europe. Philosophical Transactions A, 2055, 1-16.

19.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Strough, J., & Parker, A.M. (2014). Getting older isn’t all that bad: Better decisions and coping when facing ’sunk costs.’ Psychology and Aging, 29, 642-647.

20.   Bruine de Bruin, W., & Wong-Parodi, G. (2014). The role of initial affective impressions in responses to educational communications: The case of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20, 126-135.

21.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Wong-Parodi, G., & Morgan, M.G. (2014). Public perceptions of local flood risk and the role of climate change. Environment, Systems, and Decisions, 34, 591-599.

22.   Mayer, L.A., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Morgan M.G. (2014). Informed public choices for low-carbon electricity portfolios using a computer tool. Environmental Science & Technology, 48, 3640-3648.

23.   Min, J., Azevedo, I.L., Michalek, J., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (2014). Labeling energy costs on light bulbs lowers implicit discount rates. Ecological Economics, 97, 42-50.

24.   Taylor, A.L., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Dessai, S. (2014). Climate change beliefs and perceptions of weather-related changes in the United Kingdom. Risk Analysis, 34, 1995-2004.

25.   Taylor, A.L., Dessai, S., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (2014). Public perception of climate risk and adaptation in the UK: A review of the literature. Climate Risk Management, 4-5, 1-16.

26.   Armantier, O., Bruine de Bruin, W., Potter, S., Topa, G., van der Klaauw, W., & Zafar, B. (2013). Measuring inflation expectations. Annual Review of Economics, 5, 273-301.

27.   Bruine de Bruin, W., & Bostrom, A. (2013). Assessing what to address in science communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 14062-14068.

28.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Stone, E.R., Gibson, J.M., Fischbeck, P.F., & Shoraka, M.B. (2013). The effect of communication design and recipients’ numeracy on responses to UXO risk. Journal of Risk Research, 16, 981-1004.

29.   Davis, A.L., Krishnamurti, T., Fischhoff, B., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (2013). Setting a standard for electricity pilot studies. Energy Policy, 62, 401-409.

30.   Del Missier, F., Mäntylä, T., Hansson, P., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Parker, A.M. (2013). The multifold relationship between memory and decision making: An individual differences study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 1344-1364.

31.   Gibson, J., Rowe, A., Stone, E., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (2013). Communicating quantitative information about unexploded ordnance risk to the public. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 4004-4013.

32.   Stone, E.R., Choi, Y.S., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Mandel, D.R. (2013).  I can take the risk, but you should be safe: Self-other differences in situations involving physical safety. Judgment and Decision Making, 8, 250-267.

33.   Wong-Parodi, G., Bruine de Bruin, W., & Canfield, C. (2013).  Effects of simplifying outreach materials for energy conservation programs that target low-income consumers.  Energy Policy, 62, 1157-1164.

34.   Bruine de Bruin, W. & Carman, K.G. (2012). Measuring risk perceptions: What does the excessive use of 50% mean? Medical Decision Making, 32, 232-236.

35.   Bruine de Bruin, W., van der Klaauw, W., Topa, G., Downs, J.S., Fischhoff, B., & Armantier, O. (2012). The effect of question wording on consumers’ reported inflation expectations.  Journal of Economic Psychology, 4, 749-757.

36.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A.M. & Fischhoff, B.  (2012). Explaining adult age differences in decision-making competence.  Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25, 352-360.

37.   Del Missier, F., Mäntylä, T. & Bruine de Bruin, W. (2012).  Decision-making competence, executive functioning, and general cognitive abilities.  Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25, 331-351.

38.   Jacobson, D., Parker, A., Spetzler, C., Bruine de Bruin, W., Hollenbeck, K., Heckerman, D., & Fischhoff, B. (2012). Improved learning in U.S. history and decision competence with decision-focused curriculum. PLOS One, 7, 1-3.

39.   Klima, K., Bruine de Bruin, W., Morgan, M.G. & Grossman, I. (2012). Public perceptions of hurricane modification. Risk Analysis, 32, 1194-1206.

40.   Krishnamurti, T., Schwartz, D., Davis, A., Fischhoff, B., Bruine de Bruin, W., Lave, L. & Wang, J. (2012). Preparing for smart grid technologies: A behavioral decision research approach to understanding consumer expectations about smart meters. Energy Policy, 41, 790-797.

41.   Parker, A.M., Bruine de Bruin, W., Yoong, J. & Willis, R. (2012).  Inappropriate confidence and retirement planning: Four studies with a national sample.  Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25, 382-389.

42.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A.M. & Maurer, J.  (2011).  Measuring perceptions of small nonzero chance: The case of H1N1 (swine) flu risks. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 42, 145-159.

43.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Manski, C.F., Topa, G. & VanderKlaaw, W.  (2011). Measuring consumer uncertainty about future inflation.  Journal of Applied Econometrics, 26, 454-478.

44.   Bruine de Bruin, W., van der Klaauw, W. & Topa, G. (2011). Inflation expectations: The biasing effect of thoughts about specific prices. Journal of Economic Psychology, 32, 834-845.

45.   Attari, S.Z., DeKay, M.L., Davidson, C.I. & Bruine de Bruin, W. (2010). Public perception of energy consumption and savings.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 107, 16054-16059.

46.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Downs, J.S., Murray, P.M. & Fischhoff, B. (2010). Can female adolescents tell whether they will test positive for Chlamydia infection?  Medical Decision Making, 30, 189-193.

47.   Bruine de Bruin, W., van der Klaauw, W., Downs, J.S., Fischhoff, B., Topa, G. & Armantier, O. (2010). Expectations of inflation: The role of financial literacy and demographic variables.  Journal of Consumer Affairs, 44, 381-402.

48.   Bruine de Bruin, W., van der Klaauw, W., Potter, S., Rich, R. & Topa, G. (2010). Improving survey measures of household inflation expectations.  Current Issues in Economics and Finance, 16, 1-7.

49.   Del Missier, F., Mäntylä, T. & Bruine de Bruin, W. (2010).  Executive functions in decision making: An individual differences approach.   Thinking & Reasoning, 16, 69-97.

50.   Downs, J., Arslanian, S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Carr Copeland, V., Doswell, W., Herman, W., Lain, K., Mansfield, J., Murray, P., White, N., Charron-Prochownik, D. (2010). Implications of type 2 diabetes on adolescent reproductive health risk: An expert model. The Diabetes Educator, 36, 911-919.

51.   Fischhoff, B., Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A.M., Millstein, S.G. & Halpern-Felsher, B.L. (2010).  Adolescents’ Perceived Risk of Dying.  Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 265-269.

52.   Fleishman, L., Bruine de Bruin, W., Morgan, M.G. (2010). Informed public preferences for electricity portfolios with CCS and other low-carbon technologies. Risk Analysis, 30, 1399-1410.

53.   Matthews, J.T., Beach, S.R., Downs, J., Bruine de Bruin, W., Mecca, L.P., & Schultz, R. (2010). Preferences and concerns for quality of life technology among older adults and persons with disabilities: National survey results. Technology and Disability, 22, 5-15.

54.   Attari, S., Schoen, M., Davidson, C., DeKay, M.L., Bruine de Bruin, W., Dawes, R. & Small, M. (2009).  Preferences for change: Do individuals prefer voluntary actions, soft regulations or hard regulations to decrease fossil fuel consumption? Ecological Economics, 68, 1701-1710.

55.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., Güvenç, Ü., Caruso, D. & Armstrong, C. (2009). A model-based scenario approach to communicating the risks of xenotransplantation.  Risk Analysis, 29, 1105-1115.

56.   Downs, J.S., Bruine de Bruin, W. & Fischhoff, B. (2008).  Parents’ vaccination comprehension and decisions.  Vaccine, 26, 1595-1607.

57.   Parker, A.M., Bruine de Bruin, W. & Fischhoff, B. (2007).  Maximizers vs. satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes.  Judgment and Decision Making, 2, 342-350.

58.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Downs, J.S., Fischhoff, B. & Palmgren, C. (2007).  Development and evaluation of an HIV/AIDS knowledge measure for adolescents focusing on misunderstood concepts. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Children and Youth, 8, 35-57.

59.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A.M. & Fischhoff, B. (2007). Individual differences in Adult Decision-Making Competence.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 938-956.

60.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A.M. & Fischhoff, B. (2007).  Can adolescents predict significant life events?  Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 208-210.

61.   Bruine de Bruin, W. (2006).  Save the last dance II: Unwanted serial position effects in figure skating judgments.  Acta Psychologica, 123, 299-311.

62.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., Brilliant, L. & Caruso, D. (2006).  Expert judgments of pandemic influenza risks.  Global Public Health, 1, 178-193.

63.   Downs, J.S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Murray, P.J. & Fischhoff, B. (2006). Specific STI knowledge may be acquired too late.  Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 65-67.

64.   Fischhoff, B., Bruine de Bruin, W., Güvenç, U., Brilliant, L. & Caruso, D. (2006). Analyzing disaster risks and plans: An avian flu example.  Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 33, 131-149.

65.   Bruine de Bruin, W. (2005). Save the last dance for me: Unwanted serial position effects on jury evaluations. Acta Psychologica, 118, 245-260.

66.   Downs, J.S., Murray, P.J., Bruine de Bruin, W., White, J.P., Palmgren, C. & Fischhoff, B. (2004). Interactive video behavioral intervention to reduce adolescent females' STD risk: A randomized controlled trial. Social Science & Medicine, 59, 1561-1572.

67.   Fischhoff, B., Bruine de Bruin, W., Perrin, W. & Downs, J.S. (2004). Travel risks in a time of terror: Judgments and choices. Risk Analysis, 24, 1299-1307.

68.   Palmgren, C., Morgan, M.G., Bruine de Bruin, W. & Keith, D. (2004). Initial public perceptions of deep geological and oceanic disposal of carbon dioxide. Environmental Science & Technology, 38, 6441-6450.

69.   Bruine de Bruin, W. & Keren, G. (2003). Order effects in sequentially judged options due to the direction of comparison. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 92, 91-101.

70.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischbeck, P.S., Stiber, N.A. & Fischhoff, B. (2002). What number is “fifty-fifty”? Redistributing excess 50% responses in risk perception studies. Risk Analysis, 22, 725-735.

71.  Byram, S., Fischhoff, B., Embrey, M., Bruine de Bruin, W. & Thorne, S. (2001). Mental Models of Women with Breast Implants: Local Complications. Behavioral Medicine, 27, 4-14.

72.   Bruine de Bruin, W. & Fischhoff, B. (2000). The effect of question format on measured HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention center teens, high school students, and adults. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12, 187-198.

73.   Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., Millstein, S.G. & Halpern-Felsher, B.L. (2000). Verbal and numerical expressions of probability: “It’s a fifty-fifty chance.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 81, 115-131.

74.   Fischhoff, B., Parker, A.M., Bruine de Bruin, W., Downs, J.S., Palmgren, C., Dawes, R. & Manski, C. (2000). Teen expectations for significant life events. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 189-205.

75.   Fischhoff, B. & Bruine de Bruin, W. (1999). Fifty-fifty=50%?  Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 12, 149-163.

76.   Fischhoff, B., Downs, J.S. & Bruine de Bruin, W. (1998). Adolescent Vulnerability: A framework for behavioral interventions. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7, 77-94.